Projectile Point Types

A Glossary of Proper Names in California Prehistory

Projectile Point Types
Point types have often been grouped into series, which reflect types closely associated in time and space, or into clusters, which reflect morphological and technological similarities. Some “projectile point” types may include other kinds of symmetrical, bifacial tools, such as knives, rather than projectile points. The most comprehensive and detailed recent discussion of projectile point types represented in prehistoric California is by Noel D. Justice. A substantial portion of what follows has been extracted from his book. (Justice 2002)


A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z


ALAMO. A type of large, thin points with straight or expanding stems. Alamo stemmed points are found in the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento delta areas and dated between ca. 500 B.C. and A.D. 500. Named after the Alamo Site (CCO-311), the type was described by Noel D. Justice. (Justice 2002)

ALBION HEAD. A type of large, side-notched points, found primarily in the southern portion of the North Coast Ranges and dated between ca. 3450 and 550 B.C. Albion Head side-notched points have been classified within the Pacific Coast cluster. The type is named for a location in Mendocino County. (Justice 2002)

ALKALI. A type of small (arrow-size), stemmed points, found in Surprise Valley in northwestern California and dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1500. The Alkali stemmed point is comparable to the Rose Spring corner-notched type. The type was defined by James F. O’Connell. (Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bO’Connell 1975)

AÑO NUEVO. A type of large points with long, tapering stems, found on California’s central coast and dated between ca. 2000 B.C. and A.D. 1000. The Año Nuevo long-stemmed type has been classified within theCoastal cluster. Año Nuevo Point is in San Mateo County. The type was defined by Terry L. Jones and Mark Hylkema. (Gerow with Force 1968Hylkema 19911993Jones and Hylkema 1988Jones and Waugh 1995;Justice 2002)

BALD MOUNTAIN. A type of wide-stemmed points in northern California. The Bald Mountain wide-stemmed type is comparable to the Borax Lake wide-stemmed type. (Justice 2002)

BARE CREEK. Types of large, split-stemmed, eared, and single-shouldered points, found in Surprise Valley in northeastern California. The Bare Creek types are comparable to the Pinto or Gatecliff series. (Justice 2002;O’Connell 1975)

BIG VALLEY. A type of large, stemmed points, and a cluster of related types. Big Valley stemmed points are found primarily in the North Coast Ranges and dated between ca. 4000 to 1500 B.C. The Big Valley cluster also includes Cache Creek corner-notched, Kelsey Creek barbed, and Mayacmas corner-notched types. (Justice 2002)

BLACK ROCK. A type of large, lanceolate, concave-base points found in the deserts of eastern eastern California and in the San Joaquin Valley, as well as throughout the Great Basin, and dated between ca. 11,000 and 5000 B.C. The type was identified by C. William Clewlow, Jr., in the Black Rock Desert of northwestern Nevada. (Clewlow 1968Justice 2002)

BORAX LAKE. Designations for a cluster or series of large, wide-stemmed points, for a type within that cluster, and for a fluted point type. The Borax Lake cluster is represented in most of California and dated between ca. 6000 and 3000 B.C. It includes Borax Lake wide-stemmed and Stanislaus broad-stemmed types, as well as Mostin pentagonal, Bucks Lake wide-stemmed, and Bald Mountain wide-stemmed points. The Borax Lake wide-stemmed type was identified by Mark R. Harrington at the Borax Lake Site (LAK-36). The late Pleistocene Borax Lake fluted points are local equivalents of Clovis points. (Fredrickson 1974Harrington 1948Hildebrandt 2007Justice 2002)

BUCHANAN. A type of large, eared points, found primarily in the southern Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 700. Buchanan eared points have been classified within the Humboldt cluster. The type was identified by Michael J. Moratto at Buchanan Reservoir in Madera County. (Justice 2002)

BUCKS LAKE. A type of wide-stemmed points in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada in northern California, dated between ca. 5600 and 3000 B.C. The Bucks Lake wide-stemmed type is comparable to theBorax Lake wide-stemmed type. The type was defined at the Rainbow Point Site (PLU-113) and takes its name from Bucks Lake in Plumas County. (Justice 2002)

CACHE CREEK. A type of large, corner-notched points, found in the North Coast Ranges and dated between ca. 4000 and 1500 B.C. Cache Creek corner-notched points habe been classified within the Big Valley cluster. The type takes its name from Cache Creek in Lake County. (Justice 2002)

CANALIÑO. A type of small (arrow-sized), triangular, concave- or convex-based points, found on the southern California coast from San Luis Obsipo to Orange County and dated after ca. A.D. 1300. Canaliño triangular points, also termed Canaliño swallow-tailed points, are equivalent to the Cottonwood triangular type. The type’s name comes from the Santa Barbara Channel and the late Holocene Canaliño culture associated with it. (King 1978)

CENTRAL COAST. A series of large stemmed points, including contracting-stem, concave-base-stemmed,Rossi square-stemmed, and Año Nuevo long-stemmed types. The Central Coast series has sometimes been subdivided into the Rossi and Coastal clusters. The series was defined by Terry L. Jones and Georgie Waugh. (Jones and Waugh 1995Justice 2002)

CHANNEL ISLANDS. A type of large, contracting-stemmed, barbed points, found on the Channel Islands and adjacent coastline of southern California, and dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 1000. The Channel Islands barbed type has been classified within the Coastal cluster. (Justice 2002)

CLEAR LAKE. A type of small (arrow-sized), triangular, corner-notched points, found primarily in the southern North Coast Ranges and dated after ca. A.D. 1200. Clear Lake corner-notched points have been classified within the Rattlesnake cluster. The type takes its name from Clear Lake in Lake County. (Justice 2002)

CLIKAPUDI. A series of large, side-notched and corner-notched points, found in the upper Sacramento River valley. The series has been identified with the Elko cluster. The series was defined by Mark E. Basgall and William R. Hildebrandt. (Basgall and Hildebrandt 1989)

CLOVIS. A type of large, lanceolate points with concave, fluted bases. Clovis points have been found throughout most of North America, including several parts of California, and have been dated primarily from the terminal Pleistocene, or between ca. 11,500 and 9000 B.C. They have also been classified as Great Basinconcave-base and Borax Lake fluted points. (Davis and Shutler 1969Dillon 2002Glennan 1971bJustice 2002Rondeau 2009Rondeau et al. 2007Warren and Phagan 1988)

COASTAL. A cluster of large, contracting-stemmed points, represented throughout coastal California and dated between ca. 2500 B.C. and A.D. 1000. The Coastal contracting-stemmed series includes Año Nuevo,Channel IslandsExcelsiorHouxPoint Sal, and Vandenberg types. (Justice 2002)

CONTRA COSTA. A type of large, notched points, found in the Sacramento delta and San Francisco Bay areas and dated between ca. 500 B.C. and A.D. 500. The type was defined by Noel D. Justice and takes its name from Contra Costa County. (Justice 2002)

COTTONWOOD. A series of small (arrow-sized) points including triangular, leaf-shaped, and bipointed types. Cottonwood points have been identified throughout much of California and dated after ca. A.D. 900. They have been been considered part of the Desert series. The Cottonwood Creek Site (INY-2) is in Owens Valley. The series was defining by Edward P. Lanning. (Heizer and Clewlow 1968Heizer and Hester 1978a1978b;Holmer 1986Koerper et al. 1996Lanning 1963Pigniolo 2004Riddell 1951Riddell and Riddell 1956Thomas 1981True 1966Waugh 1988)

DELTA. A type or subtype of usually small, triangular, side-notched points, found primarily in interior central California and dated after ca. A.D. 1500. Delta side-notched points have been included within the Desertcluster. The type takes its name from the Sacramento delta and was defined by Martin A. Baumhoff and J. S. Byrne. (Baumhoff and Byrne 1959Justice 2002)

DESERT. A series or cluster and a type of small (arrow-sized), triangular points, and most frequently referring specifically to the Desert side-notched type. Desert series points have been found throughout much of California and the Great Basin, and they have been dated after ca. A.D. 1000. Types or subtypes of the series/cluster have been designated as General (i.e. Desert side-notched type), SierraDeltaRedding, andPanoche. The Desert series also includes Cottonwood and Dos Cabezas types. The Desert side-notched type was defined by Martin A. Baumhoff. (Baumhoff 1957Baumhoff and Byrne 1959Heizer and Hester 1978a,1978bHolmer 1986Koerper et al. 1996Olsen and Payen 1968Pigniolo 2004Thomas 1981)

DIABLO CANYON. A type of large, side-notched points, found in coastal southern California and dated between ca. 6000 and 3500 B.C. Diablo Canyon side-notched points have been classified within the Pacific Coast side-notched series. The type was defined by Noel D. Justice. (Justice 2002)

DOS CABEZAS. A type of small (arrow-size), triangular, deeply serrated points, dated after ca. A.D. 500. Alternatively, Dos Cabezas serrated points have sometimes been classified with Desert side-notched or asCottonwood triangular forms. They were initially distinguished at Indian Hill Rockshelter (SDI-2537), near the small community of Dos Cabezas in southeastern San Diego County.

EASTGATE. A series of small (arrow-size) points, including Eastgate expanding-stemmed and split-stemmed types, found in the Great Basin and eastern California and dated between ca. A.D. 600 and 1300. The Eastgate series has sometimes been grouped together with the Rose Spring type into a Rosegate type or cluster. The Eastgate series was identified at the Wagon Jack Shelter Site (NV-Ch-119) in central Nevada. (Heizer and Baumhoff 1961Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bJustice 2002)

ELKO. A series or cluster of large, notched points, including Elko eared, corner-notched, side-notched, split-stemmed, and contracting-stemmed types. Elko points have been found throughout most of California and the Great Basin, and have been dated between ca. 2000 B.C. and A.D. 1100. Gypsum stemmed points have also been included in the Elko series. The series was defined by Robert F. Heizer and Martin A. Baumhoff at South Fork Shelter (NV-EL-11) in Elko County, Nevada. (Basgall and Hall 2000Heizer and Baumhoff 1961Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bHolmer 1986Justice 2002Koerper et al. 1994Lanning 1963Thomas 1981)

EXCELSIOR. A type of large points with straight or convex sides and a large, convex base, found in the southern North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay area, and Sacramento delta, and dated between ca. 2000 B.C. and A.D. 500. Excelsior points have been classified within the Coastal cluster. The type was defined by David A. Fredrickson and named for Excelsior Valley in Lake County. (Basgall 2007Fredrickson 1973;Hildebrandt 2007)

FISH SLOUGH. A type of large, side-notched points, found in the western Great Basin and dated to the early Holocene. The type was distinguished by Mark E. Basgall and his associates at Fish Slough in Inyo and Mono counties. (Basgall and Giambastiani 1995Basgall et al. 1995)

FORESTHILL. A type of large, lanceolate, notched points, found in the central Sierra Nevada region and dated between ca. 1500 B.C. and A.D. 500. Foresthill notched points have been classified within the Martiscluster. The type was defined by Noel D. Justice. (Justice 2002)

GATECLIFF. A series or types of large points, found throughout the Great Basin, including eastern California, and dated between ca. 4000 and 1000 B.C. The Gatecliff series incorporates the PintoLittle Lake, and Bare Creek types or series, as well as some or all Gypsum points. Alternatively, proposed types include Gatecliff split-stemmed points, classified within the Pinto cluster, and Gatecliff contracting-stemmed points, classified within the Gypsum cluster. Gatecliff points were defined by David Hurst Thomas, based in part on collections from Gatecliff Shelter (NV-Ny-301) in central Nevada. (Basgall and Hall 2000Holmer 1986Justice 2002;Thomas 1981)

GREAT BASIN. A series or cluster of large, stemmed and concave-base, fluted point types found in eastern and southern California as well as other parts of western North America, dated between ca. 9000 and 6000 B.C. Great Basin stemmed points include Lake Mohave and Silver Lake types. Great Basin concave-base points are also labelled as Clovis points. Crescents have sometimes been designated as Great Basin transverse points. The series was proposed by Donald R. Tuohy. (Garfinkel 2007Haynes 2004Justice 2002Tuohy 1974Tuohy and Layton 1977)

GUNTHER. A series or cluster of small (arrow-size), triangular points with long barbs and a relatively short, straight, expanding, or contracting stems. Gunther barbed points are found in northern California as well as the Pacific Northwest and date after ca. A.D. 800. A subtype, the Sutter variant, has been distinguished. The Gunther barbed type was identified on Gunther Island in Humboldt Bay and was named by Adan Treganza. (Hildebrandt 2007Schulz and Jackson 1975Treganza 1958)

GYPSUM. A type of large, contracting-stem points, found in the southern Great Basin and the Southwest and dated between ca. 8000 B.C. and A.D. 600. Gypsum (or Gypsum Cave) points have sometimes been grouped within the Elko series. The Gypsum type was identified by Mark R. Harrington at Gypsum Cave in southern Nevada. (Harrington 1933Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bKoerper et al. 1994)

HELENA. A series of large, corner-notched points, found in northwestern California and dated between ca. 4000 and 1000 B.C. (Hildebrandt and Hayes 2007)

HOT CREEK. A type of large, stemmed points, found in the central Sierra Nevada and western Great Basin, and dated between ca. 1100 B.C. and A.D. 500. The type was named after Hot Creek near Mammoth Lakes in Mono County, and was defined by Noel D. Justice. (Justice 2002)

HOUX. A type of large points with straight sides and contracting, square, or expanding stems. Houx points are found in the North Coast Ranges, San Francisco Bay area, and Sacramento Valley and have been dated between ca. 2500 B.C. and A.D. 500. The Houx contracting-stemmed type has been clsssified within theCoastal cluster. Houx points are named after the Houx Site (LAK-261). (Hildebrandt 2007Justice 2002)

HUMBOLDT. A series or cluster as well as types of large, lanceolate, unshouldered, concave-based or basal-notched points, found in the Great Basin and central California, and dated between ca. 4000 B.C. and A.D. 800. The Humboldt cluster includes Humbodlt concave-based types A and B, as well as Buchanan eared and Mendocino concave-based points. The Humboldt series was identified by Robert F. Heizer and C. William Clewlow, Jr., at the Humboldt Lakebed Site (NV-Ch-15). (Bettinger 1978Garfinkel and Yohe 2004Heizer and Clewlow 1968Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bHolmer 1986Justice 2002Koerper et al. 1994Thomas 1981)

JALAMA. A type of large, side-notched, concave-based points, found in the western portions of central and southern on California and dated between ca. 6000 and 2500 B.C. The type was named after Jalama Beach in Santa Barbara County. (Justice 2002Lathrap and Troike 1984)

KAVINISH. A type of small (arrow-size), triangular, basally-tanged points, found in the Coachella Valley of Riverside County and dated after ca. A.D. 500. Alternatively, these points have sometimes been classified with Desert series or as Cottonwood triangular forms. The type was initially distinguished by Harry M. Quinn at site RIV-64/H in Indian Wells, in the Coachella Valley. (Quinn 2006)

KELSEY CREEK. A type of large, corner-notched, barbed points, found in the North Coast Ranges and dated between ca. 4000 and 2500 B.C. Kelsey Creek barbed points have been classified within the Big Valleycluster. The type was named for Kelsey Creek near Clear Lake. (Justice 2002)

LAKE MOHAVE. A type of large, lozenge-shaped, long-stemmed, short-bladed, weak-shouldered points, found in southern and eastern California as well as elsewhere in western North America and dated between ca. 9000 and 6000 B.C. Lake Mohave points have been classified in the Great Basin series or cluster. The type was identified at sites associated with Pleistocene Lake Mohave in the Mojave Desert. (Amsden 1937;Justice 2002)

LITTLE LAKE. A series of large, middle to late Holocene points. Little Lake points have sometimes been lumped together with Pinto series points, while other analysts have differentiated them, for instance on the basis that the former are longer, thinner, extensively pressure flaked with deep basal notches. The Little Lake category was introduced by Edward P. Lanning, based on collections from the Stahl Site near Little Lake in southwestern Inyo County. (Basgall and Hall 2000Bettinger and Taylor 1974Lanning 1963Layton 1970;Meighan 1981)

LITTLE PICO. A type of large, bipointed points with small, asymmetrical tangs (“nipples”) at the junction between blade and stem, dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 1000. The Little Pico Creek Site on the central California coast is SLO-175. (Jones and Waugh 1995)

MADELINE DUNES. A type of large, side-notched points, found in northeastern California, essentially equivalent to the Northern side-notched type. The Madeline Dunes type was identified by Francis A. Riddell at the Karlo Site (LAS-7). (Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bRiddell 1960)

MALAGA COVE. A type of leaf-shaped points, found primarily along the southern California coast and dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1300. The type was named by Noel D. Justice for the Malaga Cove Site (LAN-1380) near Los Angeles. (Justice 2002)

MARTIS. A series, cluster, or types of large points, found primarily in the central Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 650. Martis triangular, leaf-shaped, contracting-stemmed, split-stemmed, side-notched, and corner-notched types have been suggested. The Martis Site (PLA-5) is in Martis Valley, near Lake Tahoe. The series was iniitally described by Robert F. Heizer and Albert B. Elsasser. (Elston 1971;Heizer and Elsasser 1953Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bJustice 2002)

MARYMOUNT. A series of small, tanged, stemmed points, found in Los Angeles and Ventura counties and dated between ca. A.D. 400 and 1100. Marymount points are similar to some Rose Spring points. The series was defined by David M. Van Horn. (Koerper et al. 1996Van Horn 1990)

MAYACMAS. A type of large, triangular, corner-notched points, found in the North Coast Ranges and dated between ca. 2500 and 500 B.C. Mayacmas corner-notched points have been classified within the Big Valleycluster. The type was designated by Noel D. Justice for the Mayacmas mountain range near Clear Lake. (Justice 2002)

MCGILLIVRAY. A type of large, narrow, expanding-stemmed points, found on the central California coast and the Sacramento delta, and dated between ca. 2500 and 500 B.C. McGillivray expanding-stemmed points are named for the McGillivray Site (SJO-142). (Justice 2002)

MENDOCINO. A series of large, points, found in the North Coast Ranges and dated between ca. 3500 B.C. and A.D. 500. Suggested Mendocino types have included concave-based, contracting-stemmed, corner-notched, and side-notched. Six chronologically and geographically significant morphological types of Mendocino concave-based points have been distinguished: deep-base, shallow-base hipped, wide, shallow-base shouldered, general shallow-base, and small. Mendocino concave-based points have subsequently been grouped with Willits and Trinity points within a Willits/Trinity series. (Basgall 2007Hildebrandt 2007;Hildebrandt and Levulett 2002Justice 2002White et al. 1982)

MOSTIN. A type of large, shoulderless, pentagonal points, included within the Borax Lake cluster. The type may represent resharpened Borax Lake wide-stemmed points. The type takes its name from the Mostin Site (LAK-380/381) near Clear Lake and from Jerry Mostin, the site’s avocational discoverer. (Justice 2002White and King 2007)

NEED. A type of long, narrow, stemmed, lanceolate points, found primarily in the Sacramento delta area and dated between ca. 500 B.C. and A.D. 500. Need stemmed lanceolate points take their name from the Need Site (SAC-151). (Justice 2002)

NORDEN. A type of large, triangular, basal-notched points, found primarily in the central Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 1500 B.C. and A.D. 500. The type was named for Van Norden Lake in Nevada County by Michael P. Claytor. (Claytor 1973Justice 2002)

NORTHERN. A series or cluster of large, side-notched, leaf-shaped or triangular points, as well as a type of side-notched points, found primarily in the northern Great Basin and dated between ca. 7000 and 1000 B.C. The Northern series has also been termed the Large series. The Northern side-notched type has also been termed the Madeline Dunes type. The series was defined by Ruth Gruhn. (Gruhn 1961Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bHolmer 1986Justice 2002Koerper et al. 1994O’Connell 1971O’Connell and Inoway 1994;Thomas 1981)

OREGON. A series of large points, found in northwestern California as well as Oregon and dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 500. (Hildebrandt and Hayes 2007)

PACIFIC COAST. A cluster of large, side-notched points, found in coastal California and dated between ca. 6000 and 5500 B.C. Types within the cluster are JalamaDiablo Canyon, and Albion Head. (Justice 2002)

PANOCHE. A type of small, triangular, side-notched points, found on the central California coast and in the San Joaquin Valley and dated after ca. A.D. 1500. Panoche side-notched points have been classified as a within the Desert series. The type was defined by William H. Olsen and Louis A. Payen at the Little Panoche Reservoir in Fresno County. (Justice 2002Olsen and Payen 1068)

PARMAN. A series of large, stemmed points in the northwestern Great Basin, incorporating Lake Mohave andSilver Lake types and corresponding to the Great Basin stemmed series. The Parman series (also termed Lake Parman) was defined by Thomas N. Layton. (Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bLayton 1970)

PAROWAN. A type of small, triangular, basal-notched points, found primarily in the Colorado Plateau and southern Great Basin but also represented in Death Valley, dated after ca. 950 B.C. Parowan basal-notched points have been classified within the Rosegate cluster. The type’s name derives from Parowan Valley, Utah. (Justice 2002)

PATRICK’S POINT. A type of small, triangular points, interpreted as harpoon and/or arrow points and found in coastal northwestern California. Patrick’s Point is in northern Humboldt County. (Gould 1966Lyman et al. 1988)

PINTO. A series or cluster of large points, often characterized by rough flaking, side- or corner-notching, and bifurcate stems or bases. Pinto points are widely distributed in western North America and have been controversially dated between ca. 8000 and A.D. 1. The Little Lake series has sometimes been included within the Pinto series or vice versa, while sometimes the two are differentiated. Other overlaps have been noted between Pinto and HumboldtGatecliffElko, and Gypsum point forms. A broad range of different Pinto types or subtypes have been distinguished by different analysts. The series takes its name from the Pinto Basin sites where Charles Amsden described the points in 1935. (Basgall and Hall 2000Campbell and Campbell 1935Harrington 1957Haynes 2004Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bHester 1973Holmer 1986Jenkins and Warren 1984Justice 2002Koerper et al. 1994Lanning 1963Layton 1970Meighan 19811989;Rogers 1939Vaughan and Warren 1987Warren 1980)

POINT SAL. A type of large, barbed points, found in coastal southern California. Point Sal barbed points have been classified within the Coastal cluster. The type was proposed by Noel D. Justice. (Justice 2002)

PRICE RANCH. A type of small, triangular points, found in the Santa Barbara area and dated after ca. A.D. 1100. Price Ranch triangular points have been classified within the Western cluster. The type takes its name from Price Ranch in southern San Luis Obsipo County and was proposed by Noel D. Justice. (Justice 2002)

RATTLESNAKE. A series or cluster, as well as types, of small (arrow-size), corner-notched points, found primarily in the North Coast Ranges and dated after ca. 400 B.C. The Rattlesnake cluster includes Rattlesnake corner-notched, Clear Lake corner-notched, and Round Valley corner-notched types. Rattlesnake side-notched and Rattlesnake triangular types have also been proposed. The series takes its name from Rattlesnake Island in Clear Lake. (Basgall 2007Hildebrandt 2007Justice 2002)

REDDING. A type of small, triangular, side-notched points, found in the upper Sacramento Valley and dated after ca. A.D. 1600. Redding side-notched points have been classified within the Desert cluster. The type was initially described by Martin A. Baumhoff and J. S. Byrne, and was named after the city of Redding. (Baumhoff and Byrne 1959Justice 2002)

ROSEGATE. A series of small (arrow-size) points, or a type uniting the Rose Spring and Eastgate types. Rosegate points are found primarily in the Great Basin and dated between ca. A.D. 400 and 1300. Some analysts reject the use of a single Rosegate type for points from California sites. The Rosegate series includes Rose Spring corner-notched, Eastgate expanding-stemmed, and Parowan basal-notched types. The Rosegate type was proposed by David Hurst Thomas, using a name suggested by Robert Elston. (Holmer 1986Thomas 1981Yohe 2000)

ROSE SPRING. A series of small (arrow-size) points, primarily corner-notched but also with contracting-stem and possible side-notched variants. The type is found primarily in the Great Basin and dated between ca. A.D. 400 and 1300. The Rose Spring type is sometimes grouped with the Eastgate type into a Rosegate type, or classified within in a Rosegate cluster. The Rose Spring type was defined by Edward P. Lanning at the Rose Spring Site (INY-372). (Deis 2004Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bJustice 2002Koerper et al. 1996;Lanning 1963Thomas 1981Yohe 199219982000)

ROSSI. A cluster of large, thick points, including straight-stemmed and expanding-stemmed types. Rossi points are found on California’s central coast and in adjacent ranges, and dated between ca. 2000 B.C. and A. D. 1000. The type was defined by Terry L. Jones and Mark Hylkema. The Rossi Site is MNT-387. (Hylkema 19911993Jones and Hylkema 1988Jones and Waugh 1995)

ROUND VALLEY. A type of small (arrow-size), corner-notched, found in the North Coast Ranges, including Round Valley, and dated between 400 B.C. and A.D. 1100. Round Valley corner-notched points have been classified within the Rattlesnake cluster. (Justice 2002)

SARATOGA SPRINGS. A type of small, triangular, unnotched point, similar to the Cottonwood triangular type but coeval with Rose Spring points. The designation was proposed by William J. Wallace and comes from the Saratoga Springs Site in Death Valley. (Wallace 1988).

SIERRA. A cluster and several types of points. The Sierra contracting-stemmed cluster consists of large, stemmed points, including Sierra contracting-stemmed, Norden basal-notched, Steamboat lanceolate, and Yosemite contracting-stemmed types. Sierra cluster points are found primarily in the central Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 3000 B.C. and A.D. 450. Sierra side-notched points are small (arrow-size), triangular forms, classified within the Desert side-notched cluster, found throughout the Great Basin, and dated after ca. A.D. 1250. The various Sierra types were defined by Robert G. Elston, Michael J. Moratto, and Martin A. Baumhoff and J. S. Byrne. (Baumhoff and Byrne 1959Elston 1971Heizer and Hester 1978a1978bJustice 2002)

SILVER LAKE. A type of large, shouldered points with short blades and broad, rounded stems, found in southern and eastern California and dated between ca. 9000 and 6000 B.C. Silver Lake points have been classified in the Great Basin stemmed series or cluster. The type was identified at sites associated with the Silver Lake playa, a portion of Pleistocene Lake Mohave in the Mojave Desert. (Amsden 1937Justice 2002;Koerper and Drover 1983Koerper et al. 1994)

SONORAN. A series of small, elongate, flared-base, pointed-ear points, found in Orange County and dated after ca. A.D. 1100. The series takes its name from similarity to some Hohokam points in southern Arizona. (Koerper et al. 1996)

SQUAW CREEK. A series of large, contracting-stem points found in the Squaw Creek area of the northern Sacramento River drainage. The Squaw Creek Site is SHA-475. (Sundahl 1992)

STANISLAUS. A type of large points with broad, straight or slightly expanding stems, found in the Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 4700 and 4200 B.C. Stanislaus broad-stemmed points have been classified within the Borax Lake cluster and may be comparable to Pinto series points. The type site is Clarks Flat (CAL-342) on the Stanislaus River. (Justice 2002)

STEAMBOAT. A type of large, lanceolate points with pointed, rounded, or flat bases, found in the central Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 3000 B.C. and A.D. 500. Steamboat lanceolate points have been classified within the Sierra cluster. The type’s name refers to Steamboat Hot Springs in Nevada. (Justice 2002)

STOCKTON. A series and types of serrated points, found primarily in the Sacramento delta region and dated after ca. A.D. 700. Stockton parallel-stemmed, notched-leaf, corner-notched, expanded stem, and curve types have been distinguished. (Johnson 1940Justice 2002)

SURPRISE VALLEY. A small (arrow-size), split-stemmed type, found in Surprise Valley in northwestern California and dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1500. The Surprise Valley split-stemmed point is comparable to points in the Eastgate series. The type was defined by James F. O’Connell. (Heizer and Hester 1978a,1978bO’Connell 1975)

SUTTER. A variant of contracting-stemmed points, classified within the Gunther series but distinguished on the basis of metric attributes. Sutter contracting-stemmed points are found in the eastern Sacramento Valley and central Sierra Nevada. (Davy and Ramos 1994)

TRINITY. A series of small, corner-notched and side-notched points, found in the North Coast Ranges and dated between ca. 3500 B.C. and A.D. 500. Most Trinity points have been argued to be merely reworkedWillits and Mendocino points, and have been grouped into a Willits/Trinity series. (Hildebrandt and Levulett 2002)

TUOLUMNE. A type of large, notched points, found primarily in the central Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 1100 B.C. and A.D. 500. Tuolomne notched points have been classified within the Martis series. The type was named by Noel D. Justice for the Tuolumne River. (Justice 2002)

VANDENBERG. A type of large, broad, triangular, contracting-stemmed points, found in the western portions of central and southern California and dated between ca. 2500 B.C. and A.D. 500. Vandenberg contracting-stemmed points have been classified within the Coastal cluster. The type’s name comes from Vandenberg Air Force Base. (Justice 2002)

WESTERN. A cluster of small (arrow-size), triangular, unnotched points, widely distributed in western North America and dated after ca. A.D. 900. The Western cluster includes CottonwoodCanaliño, and Price Ranchtypes. (Justice 2002)

WHISKEYTOWN. A series of large, side-notched and corner-notched points, found in the upper Sacramento Valley. The series’ name comes from Whiskeytown Reservoir in Shasta County. (Sundahl 1992)

WILLITS. A series or type of large, side-notched points, found primarily in the North Coast Ranges and dated between ca. 2000 B.C. and A.D. 500. The Willits series has sometimes been grouped into a Willits/Trinity series, including Willits, Mendocino, and Trinity forms. The Willits Site is MEN-500, near the town of Willits in Mendocino County. (Basgall 2007Baumhoff 1985Hildebrandt and Levulett 2002)

YOSEMITE. A type of large, contracting-stemmed points, found in the southern Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 2500 B.C. and A.D. 500. Yosemite contracting-stemmed points have been classified within theSierra cluster. The type’s designation comes from Yosemite National Park. (Justice 2002)