Chronological and Cultural Units

A Glossary of Proper Names in California Prehistory

Chronological and Cultural Units
(Periods, Phases, Horizons, Stages, Traditions, Co-traditions, Complexes, Patterns, Aspects, Roots, Stems, Branches, Industries, Facies, Cultures, Peoples)


 A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z


The literature on prehistoric California contains numerous designations for units referring to chronological, geographical, cultural, technological, or functional diversity in the archaeological record. These dimensions have often been invoked in overlapping or inconsistent ways. Accordingly, the different types of units are grouped together here. The following categories have sometimes been appied to these terms:

  • Aspect - A cultural unit represented by stylistically distinctive artifact assemblages within a region. Aspects have been defined as geographical subdivisions of patterns, and have in turn been subdivided into chronologically sequential phases.
  • Branch - A subdivision of the root or stem in a Southwestern classification of archaeological cultures.
  • Co-tradition - A grouping of two or more interrelated traditions within a broad region.
  • Complex - A unit including similar archaeological assemblages, sometimes also treated as essentially equivalent to a horizon.
  • Culture - A unit that is distinctive in its material traces and bounded in its geographical and chronological ranges. Archaeological cultures are sometimes interpreted as corresponding to socially organized groups, ethnolinguistic groups, or groups sharing a common nonmaterial culture.
  • Facies - A unit composed of closely related components from several sites, perhaps essentially equivalent to a phase or, in some usage, a complex.
  • Horizon - An interpretive unit that links together culturally related, broadly contemporaneous local units into a geographically more extensive unit. An horizon has been defined as “a primarily spatial continuity represented by cultural traits and assemblages whose nature and mode of occurrence permit the assumption of a broad and rapid spread” (Willey and Phillips 1958:33).
  • Industry - A set of archaeological assemblages sharing a common material type and technology.
  • Pattern - A geographically and chronologically extended cultural unit within a region, characterized by similar technology, economy, and burial practices. A pattern has been defined as “a configuration of basic traits representing a cultural adaptation” (Bennyhoff and Fredrickson 1994:20). Geographical and chronological subdivisions of patterns have been termed aspects and phases.
  • People - An interpretive unit represented by archaeological residues that are understood to be the traces of a socially, culturally, linguistically, or biologically distinct group of humans.
  • Period - A span of time, often with limits defined by perceived significant changes in the archaeological record.
  • Phase - A highly localized and chronologically restricted cultural unit. Phases have been treated as chronological subdivisions of aspects. A phase has been defined as “an archaeological unit possessing traits sufficiently characteristic to distinguish it…spatially limited to the order of magnitude or a locality or region and chronologically limited to a relatively brief interval of time” (Willey and Phillips 1958:22).
  • Root - The largest unit in a Southwestern classification of archaeological cultures. Roots are sometimes subdivided into stems and branches.
  • Stage - A general level of cultural development, usually interpreted as representing a step within an evolutionary sequence, as evidenced by a change in the level of social integration, economic focus, or technology.
  • Stem - A subdivision of a root in a Southwestern classification of archaeological cultures. Stems are sometimes subdivided into branches.
  • Tradition - An interpretive unit that links together culturally related, successive units into a chronologically more extended unit. A tradition has been defined as “a (primarily) temporal continuity represented by persistent configurations in single technologies or other systems of related forms” (Willey and Phillips 1958:37).

The dates listed below suggest the time ranges that have been proposed for the units, with variation in proposals for the starting and ending dates indicated through the use of hyphens.

These units have been defined and discussed in more detail in general reference works as well as many specialized publications. (See, in particular, Sturtevant 1978-Moratto 1984Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984, and Jones and Klar 2007.)


AH-DI-NA. A middle to late Holocene phase on the McCloud River of north-central California, dated between ca. 3000 and 1000 B.C. It was followed by the Cattle Camp phase. (Sundahl 1998)

ALAMO. A late Holocene facies in the San Francisco Bay-Mt. Diablo area. The Alamo facies has been classified within the Middle horizon and the Berkeley pattern. The Alamo facies succeeded the Concord facies and was followed by the Galindo facies. (Breschini 1983)

ALKALI. A late Holocene phase in Surprise Valley, in Modoc County. The Alkali phase was dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1500, succeeding the Emerson phase and followed by the Bidwell phase. Characteristic artifacts include Rose Spring and Eastgate projectile points. The phase has been identified with the Uto-Aztecan ethnolinguistic group. It was defined by James F. O’Connell. (O’Connell 19711975)

ALVARADO. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area, dated between ca. A.D. 1 and 200. The Alvarado phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, theBerkeley pattern, and the Ellis Landing aspect. It succeeded the Castro phase and was followed by theSherwood phase. (Bennyhoff 19861994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

AMACAVA. A late Holocene branch in the lower Colorado River area south of Needles, dated after ca. A.D. 700. The Amacava branch has been classified within the Laquish stem and the Hakataya root. Characteristic artifacts include Pyramid gray pottery. (Schroeder 19601979Warren 1984)

AMADOR. A late Holocene phase in the Salt Springs area in the Mokelumne River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. A.D. 1250. The Amador phase succeeded the Mokelumne phase. Characteristic artifacts includeDesert side-notched and Cottonwood projectile points. The designation was proposed by Cleland. (Cleland 1988Hull 2007)

AMARGOSA. A late Holocene complex or industry in the Mojave Desert, dated between ca. 2000-1000 B.C. and A.D. 400-1000. The Amargosa complex has been classified within the Desert tradition. Three phases have been distinguished: Amargosa I, II, and III. Characteristic artifacts include Elko projectile points. The complex was defined in part by Malcolm J. Rogers near the Amargosa River east of Death Valley. (Wallace 1962;Rogers 1939)

ANGELES. A late Holocene pattern in Los Angeles and northern Orange counties. Together with the Islandpattern, it made up the Del Rey tradition. Six phases, with distinctive material traits, settlement patterns, and linguistic correlates, were distinguished: Angeles I (ca. 1500-600 B.C.), Angeles II (ca. 600 B.C.-A.D. 400), Angeles III (ca. A.D. 400-750), Angeles IV (ca. A.D. 750-1200), Angeles V (ca. A.D. 1200-1550), and Angeles VI (ca. 1550-1850). In the south, the Angeles I phase succeeded the Topanga II phase, while in the north the Angeles II phase succeeded the Topanga III phase. The Angeles pattern and its phases were proposed by Mark Q. Sutton. (Sutton 2010)

AÑO NUEVO. A late Holocene phase in the Santa Cruz-Santa Clara portion of California’s central coast, dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 1000. The Año Nuevo phase has been classified within the Middle period and the Hunting culture. It succeeded the Sandhill Bluff phase and was follwed by the Bonny Doon phase. (Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

ARCHAIC. A general stage, period, or tradition. Three chronological subdivisions of the Archaic have commonly been distinguished: lower, early, or proto-Archaic (variously dated between ca. 9000-6000 and 6000-3000 B.C.); middle (between ca. 6000-3000 and 4000-500 B.C.; identified with the Early horizon); and upper or later (between ca. 4000-500 B.C. and 2000 B.C.-A.D. 1100; identified with the Middle horizon). The Archaic stage is usually considered to have succeeded a Paleo-Indian stage during the early Holocene. In some regions and chronologies, the Archaic stage extended up to the historic period, while in others it was followed by a late prehistoric period EmergentFormative, or Pacific period, stage, or tradition. (Chartkoff 2002;Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984Fredrickson 1974Jones et al. 2007Krieger 1964Meighan 1959aMilliken et al. 2007)

ASH CAMP. A late Holocene phase on the McCloud River of north-central California, dated after ca. A.D. 1000. It succeeded the Cattle Camp phase. (Sundahl 1998

ASPEN GROVE. A middle and late Holocene phase in the southern Modoc Plateau of northeastern California, dated between ca. 2500 B.C. and A.D. 1. The Aspen Grove phase succeeded the Eagle Lake phase and was followed by the Pikes Point phase. Characteristic artifacts include Sierra and Martis projectile points. (Pippin et al. 1979Raven 1984)

AUBERRY. A late Holocene phase distinguished in the Kerckhoff Reservoir area of the Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. A.D. 1400. The Auberry phase succeeded the Fish Creek phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

AUGUSTINE. A late Holocene pattern in northwestern California, dated after ca. A.D. 500-1000. It has been identified with the Late period, the Emergent period, and the Hotchkiss culture. Local expressions of the Augustine pattern include the HollisterEmeryvilleClear Lake, and Shasta aspects. The Augustine pattern succeeded the Berkeley and Mendocino patterns. Characteristic artifacts include Rattlesnake projectile points. In some areas, the Augustine pattern has been identified with the Pomo or Patwin ethnolinguistic groups. (Bennyhoff 1994bBennyhoff and Fredrickson 1994Dowdall 2002Fredrickson 19841994Hildebrandt 2007;Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

BAKER. A late Holocene phase in Owens Valley in east-central California, dated between ca. A.D. 600 and 1300. It succeeded the Cowhorn phase and was followed by the Klondike phase. Characteristic artifacts include Rose Spring and Eastgate projectile points. The Baker phase has been identified with the Uto-Aztecanethnolinguistic group. It was defined by Robert L. Bettinger. (Bettinger 1976)

BALE. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. 1500 and 1000 B.C. The phase has been identified as a subdivision of the Houx aspect within the Berkeley pattern. The Bale phase succeeded the Hultman phase and was followed by the Rutherford phase. It has been identified with the Hokan or Yukian ethnolinguistic groups. The type site is NAP-32. (Bennyhoff 1994aFredrickson 1984,1994)

BARE CREEK. A middle to late Holocene phase in Surprise Valley in northeastern California, dated between ca. 2500 and 1000 B.C. The Bare Creek phase succeeded the Menlo phase and was followed by the Emersonphase. Characteristic artifacts include Bare Creek or Gatecliff and Humboldt projectile points. The phase was identified by James F. O’Connell. (O’Connell 19711975)

BAYSHORE. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 1100 and 1300. The Bayshore phase has been classified within the Late horizon, theEmergent period, the Augustine pattern, and the Emeryville aspect. It succeeded the Crocker phase and was followed by the Newark phase. The Bayshore Site (or Crocker Mound) is SFR-7, near Hunters Point in San Francisco. (Beardsley 1954Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

BEAR CREEK. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated to ca. 1000 B.C. The Bear Creek phase has been classified within the Early horizon and the middle Archaic period. It succeeded theGarwood phase and was followed by the Holland phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

BELLA VISTA. A late Holocene complex in the upper Sacramento River valley, dated before A.D. 1000. The complex was identified at site SHA-286. (Sundahl 1992)

BERKELEY. A late Holocene and possibly middle Holocene pattern or facies in northwestern and central California, dated between ca. 3500 B.C.-A.D. 1 and A.D. 500-1000. The pattern has been classified within theEarly and Middle periods or horizons, and with the middle to upper Archaic. Three successive phases have been recognized: CreagerHoux, and Redbud. Alternatively, chronological distinctions have been made between lower Berkeley (ca. 3500-500 B.C.; Early period; middle Archaic) and upper Berkeley (ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 1000; Middle period; upper Archaic). A subdivision, the Dry Creek phase, has been recognized. Within the Berkeley pattern, MorseMeganos, and Ellis Landing aspects have been distinguished. The Berkeley pattern succeeded the Borax Lake pattern in northwestern California, the Windmiller pattern in the Sacramento delta, and the Milling Stone pattern in the San Francisco Bay area; it was followed by the Mendocino pattern or the Augustine pattern. Characteristic artifacts include Excelsior projectile points. The type site for the Berkeley facies is the West Berkeley Site (ALA-307). The Berkeley pattern has been identified with the Utianand Esselen ethnolinguistic groups. The Berkeley facies has been identified more specifically with theCostanoan ethnolinguistic group. (Beardsley 1954Bennyhoff 1994bDowdall 2002Elsasser 1978;Fredrickson 19741994Hildebrandt 2007Milliken et al. 2007Wallace and Lathrap 1975White 2002)

BIDWELL. Two late Holocene units in northern California: a phase or tradition in northeastern California, dated after ca. A.D. 1500; and a complex or tradition in the Oroville area of the western Sierra Nevada foothills, dated between ca. 500 B.C.-A.D. 1 and A.D. 500-1000. The Bidwell phase succeeded the Alkali phase. Characteristic artifacts include Desert and Cottonwood projectile points. The phase was identified by James F. O’Connell in Surprise Valley, in Modoc County. The Bidwell complex in the Oroville area succeeded theMesilla tradition and was followed by the Sweetwater tradition. Characteristic artifacts of the Bidwell tradition include medium to small, stemmed and side-notched projectile points. The Bidwell complex has been identified with the Maiduan ethnolinguistic group. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984Moratto 1984O’Connell 19711975;Ritter 1970)

BIG GAME HUNTING. A continent-wide late Pleistocene and early Holocene tradition, particularly noted in the Southwest and the Great Plains. The Big Game Hunting tradition is substantially synonymous with theFluted Point tradition and is characterized by Clovis projectile points. (Moratto 1984Willey 1966)

BLACK HILL. A middle to late Holocene phase or aspect at the Santa Rosa locality in northwestern California, dated between ca. 3500-2500 B.C. and A.D. 1-1000. The Black Hill phase has been classified within the early to middle Archaic period and the Mendocino pattern. It succeeded the Spring Lake phase and was followed by the Laguna phase. (Jones and Hayes 2007Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

BLUE LAKES. A late Holocene phase in the Mokelumne River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 500 B.C. and A.D. 500. The Blue Lakes phase was followed locally by the Mokelumne and early Kings Beachphases. Characteristic artifacts include Elko projectile points. The phase was defined by James H. Cleland in the Blue Lakes area. (Cleland 1988Hull 2007)

BONNY DOON. A late Holocene phase in the Santa Cruz-Santa Clara portion of the central California coast, dated after ca. A.D. 1000. The Bonny Doon phase has been classified within the Late period. It succeeded theAño Nuevo phase. (Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

BORAX LAKE. An early, middle, and possibly late Holocene pattern, aspect, or complex in northern California, dated between ca. 8000-4000 B.C. and 6500 B.C.-500 B.C. The Borax Lake pattern has been classified within the Archaic period and has been considered a variant of the Milling Stone horizon. The Borax Lake pattern succeeded the Post pattern and was followed in different subregions by the MendocinoBerkeley, and Squaw Creek patterns. Subdivisions of the Borax Lake Pattern have included aspects designated as Borax Lake (encompassing early-period components plus later components in the pattern’s northern areas), Mendocino, Thomes Creek, and Chirpchatter. Characteristic artifacts include Borax Lake projectile points and ovoid flake tools, left by residentially mobile foragers. The pattern has been identified with the Yukian and Hokan ethnolinguistic groups. The complex was defined by Clement W. Meighan at the Borax Lake Site (LAK-36). (Bennyhoff and Fredrickson 1994Fitzgerald and Hildebrandt 2002Fredrickson 19741994Harrington 1948Hildebrandt 2007Meighan 1955Milliken et al. 2007Sundahl 1992Sundahl and Henn 1993)

BOUSE. A designation for two successive late Holocene phases in the lower Colorado River area of western Arizona and southeastern California, dated between ca. A.D. 800 and 1300. The phases have been classified within the Lowland Patayan stem. Bouse I is dated between ca. A.D. 800 and 1000; Bouse II is dated between ca. A.D. 1100 and 1300, and was followed by the Moon Mountain phase. (Harner 1958)

BRAZIL. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 300 and 500. The Brazil phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, theBerkeley pattern, and the Morse aspect. It succeeded the Hicks phase and was followed by the Need phase. The Brazil Site is SAC-43. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

BRIDGE. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. A.D. 900 and 1100. The Bridge phase has been classified within the St. Helena aspect and the Augustine pattern. It succeeded the Yount phase and was followed by the Oakville phase. The type site is NAP-1. (Bennyhoff 1994aFredrickson 1984)

BULLARDS BAR. A series of three late Holocene phases (I, II, and II) in the northern Sierra Nevada. The phases were defined by S. E. Humphreys at New Bullards Bar Reservoir on the North Yuba River. (Moratto 1984)

CALAVERAS. A middle and late Holocene phase in the Stanislaus River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated to ca. 2000 B.C. It succeeded the Texas Charley phase and was ultimately followed by the Sierra phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

CALHOUN. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 700 and 900. The Calhoun phase has been classified within the Late period and the Augustine pattern. It succeeded the Need phase and was followed by the Eichenberger phase. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

CALIFORNIA COAST AND VALLEY. A middle and late Holocene tradition in many parts of the state, dated after ca. 5000 B.C. It locally succeeded the Old Cordilleran and Desert traditions. (Willey 1966)

CAMPBELL. A middle to late Holocene tradition in coastal southern California, particularly the Santa Barbara Channel area, dated between ca. 3000 B.C. and A.D. 700. The Campbell tradition has been classified with theHunting pattern and the Intermediate period. In some areas, the Campbell tradition succeeded the Encinitastradition and was followed by remains associated with the ethnohistoric Chumash. It was defined by Claude N. Warren. (Warren 1968)

CANALIÑO. A late Holocene culture, tradition, or people in the Santa Barbara-Los Angeles area of southern California, dated after ca. 3900 B.C.-A.D. 500. It has been classified within the Pacific period. The Canaliño culture succeeded the Oak Grove culture, Milling Stone horizon, Encinitas tradition, Hunting culture, orCampbell tradition. Early (ca. 2000 to 1500 B.C.; also termed the Rincon phase), middle (ca. 1500 B.C. to A.D. 300), and late (after ca. A.D. 300) phases have been distinguished. The culture has been identified with theChumash ethnolinguistic group. It was defined by David Banks Rogers. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984;Glassow et al. 1986Harrison 1964Orr 19431968D. Rogers 1929)

CANEBRAKE. An late Holocene phase in the Kern Plateau area of the southern Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 1200 B.C. and A.D. 600. The Canebrake phase succeeded the Lamont phase and was followed by theSawtooth phase. Characteristic artifacts include ElkoGypsum, and Humboldt projectile points. The Canebrake phase has been identified with the Tübatulabal ethnolinguistic group. (Garfinkel 2007)

CARDINAL. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 900 and 1100. The Cardinal phase has been classified within the Late horizon and the Emergent period. It succeeded the Dal Porto phase and was followed by the Park phase. The Cardinal Site is SJO-154. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

CASTLE. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated between ca. 200 B.C. and A.D. 1. The Castle phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, theBerkeley pattern, and the Meganos aspect. It succeeded the Holland phase and was followed by the Woodsphase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

CASTRO. A middle to late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area of central California, dated between ca. 200 B.C. and A.D. 100. The Castro phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upperArchaic period, the Berkeley pattern, and the Ellis Landing aspect. It succeeded the Patterson phase and was followed by the Alvarado phase. (Bennyhoff 19861994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

CATTLE CAMP. A late Holocene phase on the McCloud River of north-central California, dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 1000. It succeeded the Ah-Di-Na phase and was followed by the Ash Camp phase. (Sundahl 1998

CAULEY. A late Holocene facies in the Marin and Napa areas of central California. The Cauley facies has been classified within the Middle horizon and the upper Archaic period. It succeeded the McClure phase or the Miller Creek phase and was followed by the Mendoza phase. The Cauley Site is MRN-242. (Bennyhoff 1994bElsasser 1978)

CERBAT. A late Holocene branch near Needles on the lower Colorado River in southeastern California, dated after ca. A.D. 700. The Cerbat branch is classified within the Patayan root. (Colton 1945Warren 1984)

CHAPMAN. A late Holocene phase in the Coso Mountains area of eastern California, dated after ca. 300 B.C. The Chapman phase succeeded the Ray phase. Characteristic artifacts include Rose SpringCottonwood, andDesert projectile points. The Chapman phase was defined by Timothy Shaw Hillebrand. (Hillebrand 1972;Panlaqui 1974Warren 1984)

CHEWAUCANIAN. A middle to late Holocene culture in southern Oregon and northeastern California, dated between ca. 2500 B.C. and A.D. 1500. An identification with the Klamath ethnolinguistic group has been proposed. (Pettigrew 1980)

CHIMNEY. An late Holocene phase in the Kern Plateau area of the southern Sierra Nevada of east-central California, dated after ca. A.D. 1300. The Chimney phase succeeded the Sawtooth phase. Characteristic artifacts include Desert and Cottonwood projectile points. (Garfinkel 2007)

CHIRPCHATTER. An early to middle Holocene aspect on Squaw Creek in the upper Sacramento River drainage, dated between ca. 6000 and 3000 B.C. The Chirpchatter aspect has been classified within the Borax Lake pattern. It was followed by the Squaw Creek pattern. (Sundahl 1992)

CHOWCHILLA. A late Holocene phase in the Chowchilla River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 700 B.C. and A.D. 600. The Chowchilla phase was followed by the Raymond phase. It has been identified with the Yokuts ethnolinguistic group. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

CHRISTYS BEACH. An early and middle Holocene phase on Santa Cruz Island in southern California, dated between ca. 5500 and 3000 B.C. The Christys Beach phase was followed by the Frazers Point phase. (Hoover 1971)

CLARKS FLAT. An early Holocene phase in the Stanislaus River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 7500 and 4700 B.C. It was followed by the Stanislaus phase. Early and late Clarks Flat subphases have been distinguished. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

CLEAR LAKE. A late Holocene complex or aspect in the Russian River and Eel River subregions of northwestern California, dated after ca. A.D. 500. The Clear Lake aspect has been classified within theAugustine pattern. Characteristic elements include small corner-notched and side-notched arrow points. The Clear Lake aspect has been identified with the Pomoan linguistic group. The complex was defined by Clement W. Meighan. (Meighan 1955Fredrickson 1984)

CLOVIS. A Pleistocene tradition or cultural pattern, continent-wide in its distribution and dated to ca. 11,500 B.C. It has been classified within the Paleo-Indian stage. The Clovis tradition has been recognized in most parts of California by the occurrence of fluted (Clovis or Clovis-like) projectile points. A Western Clovis tradition has been distinguished in Oregon and northern California. (Willig and Aikens 1988)

CLYDE. A middle to late Holocene phase in Owens Valley in east-central California, dated between ca. 3500 and 1200 B.C. The Clyde phase was followed by the Cowhorn phase. Characteristic artifacts include Little Lake or Pinto projectile points. The phase was defined by Robert L. Bettinger. (Bettinger 1976)

CONCORD. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento delta, dated between ca. 500 and 200 B.C. The Concord facies has been classified within the Middle horizon and the Berkeley pattern. The Concord phase succeeded the Stone Valley aspect and was followed by the Slater phase or the Alamo facies. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

COON CREEK. A late Holocene phase in the San Luis Obispo area of the central California coast, dated between ca. A.D. 1000 and 1150. The Coon Creek phase has been classified within the transition between theMiddle and Late periods, and within the Hunting tradition. It succeeded the Little Pico II phase. The phase was identified at site SLO-9. (Jones et al. 2007)

COSUMNES. A late Holocene culture in central California, dated between ca. 1500 B.C. and A.D. 300. The Cosumnes culture corresponds to the Middle horizon, the Emery tradition, and the Berkeley pattern. It succeeded the Windmiller culture and was followed by the Hotchkiss culture. The category was proposed by Sonia R. Ragir. (Ragir 1972)

COTTONWOOD. A late Holocene phase or complex in the Owens Valley area of eastern California. Early and Late Cottonwood subphases have been distinguished. The Cottonwood phase succeeded the Rose Springphase. Characteristic artifacts include Cottonwood and Desert projectile points and Owens Valley brown ware pottery. (Lanning 1963)

COWHORN. A late Holocene phase in Owens Valley in east-central California, dated between ca. 1200 B.C. and A.D. 600. The Cowhorn phase succeeded the Clyde phase and was followed by the Baker phase. Characteristic artifacts include Elko projectile points. The phase has been identified with the Uto-Aztecanethnolinguistic group. It was defined by Robert L. Bettinger. (Bettinger 1976)

CRANE FLAT. A late Holocene phase or complex in the Yosemite area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 500-200 B.C. and A.D. 500-900. The Crane Flat phase was followed by the Tamarack phase. It has been identified with the Yokuts ethnolinguistic group. The Crane Flat complex was identified by James A. Bennyhoff. (Bennyhoff 1956Hull 2007Moratto 1999Rondeau 1999)

CREAGER. A Holocene phase in the Clear Lake area of northwestern California, dated between ca. 1200 and 500 B.C. The Creager phase has been classified within the Berkeley pattern and the Houx aspect. It was followed by the Houx phase. The Creager Site is LAK-510. (Hildebrandt 2007White 2002White and King 2007)

CROCKER. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area, dated between ca. A.D. 900 and 1100. The Crocker facies has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergent period, the Augustinepattern, and the Emeryville aspect. The Crocker phase succeeded the Ponce phase and was followed by theBayshore phase. The Crocker Mound Site (or Bayshore Site) is SFR-7. (Bennyhoff 19861994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

CUYAMACA. A late Holocene complex or phase in the Peninsular Range of southeastern San Diego County. The Cuyamaca complex is a local variant of the YumanHakataya, or Patayan tradition. Characteristic artifacts include Desert and Cottonwood projectile points, as well as Tizon and Lower Colorado ceramics. The complex was defined by D. L. True, based on investigations in Cuyamaca Rancho State Park; SDI-860 (Hual-Cu-Cuish) has been considered the type site. The Cuyamaca complex has been identified with the Diegueñoethnolinguistic group. (Gamble 2004True 19661970)

DAL PORTO. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 700 and 900. The Dal Porto phase succeeded the Martin phase and was followed by the Cardinal phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

DANVILLE. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento delta area. The Danville phase has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergent period, the Augustine pattern, and the Hollister aspect. It succeeded the Hotchkiss phase and was followed by the Rossmoor facies. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983;Elsasser 1978)

DAVIS. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. A.D. 1100-1300 and 1500. The Davis phase has been classified within the St. Helena aspect and the Augustine pattern. It succeeded the Oakville phase and was followed by the Lyman phase. (Fredrickson 1984)

DEADMAN. A middle to late Holocene complex in the southern Cascade range of northeastern California, dated between ca. 2500-1500 and 1000-500 B.C. The Deadman complex was followed by the Kingsley complex. Characteristic artifacts include side-notched, stemmed, and unifacially flaked projectile points. The Deadman complex has been interpreted as marking the appearance of the Yana speakers in their historic homeland. Deadman Cave is site TEH-290. (Baumhoff 19551957Greenway 1982Sundahl 1992)

DEADMAN LAKE. A middle Holocene complex in the Mojave Desert, dated between ca. 7500 and 2000 B.C. The Deadman Lake complex succeeded the Pinto complex and was followed, possibly after a hiatus, by theGypsum complex. Characteristic artifacts include small- to medium-sized contracting-stem or lozenge-shaped projectile points. The complex was proposed by Mark Q. Sutton, Mark E. Basgall, Jill K. Gardner, and Mark W. Allen; Deadman Lake is a playa in the south-central Mojave Desert. (Sutton et al. 2007)

DEATH VALLEY. A sequence of Pleistocene and Holocene phases in the Death Valley area in southeastern California. Death Valley I has been identified with the San Dieguito or Lake Mohave complex; Death Valley II, with the Pinto and Gypsum periods and the Mesquite Flat complex; Death Valley III, with the Saratoga Springsperiod; and Death Valley IV, with the Shoshonean or Panamint period. (Hunt 1960Wallace 1958Warren 1967)

DEER CREEK. A late Holocene phase distinguished in the Helms Project area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1250. The Deer Creek phase was followed by the Tule Meadow phase. (Hull 2007;Moratto 1999)

DEL MAR. A middle Holocene phase in the Santa Barbara area of southern California. The Del Mar phase succeeded the Extraños phase and was followed by the Rincon phase. It was proposed by William M. Harrison and Edith S. Harrison. (Harrison and Harrison 1966)

DEL REY. A late Holocene tradition in Los Angeles and Orange counties and the southern Channel Islands. The Del Rey tradition, dated after ca. 1500 B.C., succeeded the Encinitas tradition. The Del Rey tradition included the Angeles pattern on the mainland and the Island pattern on the islands. The tradition has been interpreted as marking the arrival of Takic speakers in coastal southern California. It was defined by Mark Q. Sutton. (Sutton 2010)

DESERT. An early, middle, and late Holocene culture in western North America, including the deserts of eastern California, dated after ca. 9000-7000 B.C. The label is sometimes used to refer to a long-lasting Archaicadaptation or cultural pattern and has also been called the Desert Archaic. The Desert culture was defined by Jesse D. Jennings and Edward Norbeck. (Jennings 19571964Jennings and Norbeck 1955)

DETERDING. A late Holocene facies in interior central California. The Deterding facies has been classified within the Middle horizon. It locally succeeded the Windmiller facies. The Deterding Site is SAC-99. (Breschini 1983)

DIABLO. An early Holocene phase identified in the San Luis Obsipo area of the central California coast and dated between ca. 8000 and 3500 B.C. The Diablo phase has been classified within the Milling Stone horizon and the early Archaic period. It was followed by the Little Pico phase. (Jones et al. 2007)

DINKEY. A late Holocene phase distinguished in the Dinkey Creek area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. A.D. 600 and 1500. The Dinkey phase succeeded the Exchequer phase and was followed by the Glenphase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

DOLAN. The late Holocene phase in the Big Sur area on the central California coast, dated after ca. A.D. 1150-1300. The Dolan phase succeeded the Highland phase and was followed by the historic-period Santos phase. Characteristic artifacts include Canaliño or Coastal Cottonwood projectile points. (Jones and Ferneau 2002;Jones et al. 2007)

DRY CREEK. A late Holocene period or phase identified at Warm Springs in the Russian River drainage and dated between ca. 500 B.C. and A.D. 1100-1500. The Dry Creek phase has been identified with the Berkeleypattern and the upper Archaic period. It succeeded the Skaggs period and was followed by the Smith period. Characteristic artifacts include Excelsior projectile points. The Dry Creek phase has been interpreted as marking the local arrival of Pomoan speakers. (Basgall 19822007Hildebrandt 2007Jones and Hayes 2007)

DUNE DWELLER. An early, middle, and late Holocene culture on Santa Rosa Island off the southern California coast, dated between ca. 5500 and 1400 B.C. Two phases are distinguished: the Early Dune Dweller culture (ca. 5500 to 4600 B.C.) and the Late Dune Dweller culture (ca. 2000 B.C. to 1400), with an interveningHighland culture. Late Dune Dweller was followed by Canaliño. (Orr 1968)

DYE CREEK. A late Holocene complex or aspect in the southern Cascade range of northeastern California, dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1500. The Dye Creek complex succeeded the Kingsley complex and was followed by the Mill Creek complex. Dye Creek has been interpreted as an aspect of the Tehama pattern. Characteristic artifacts include corner-notched and Gunther projectile points. (Baumhoff 19551957Sundahl 1992)

EAGLE LAKE. An early or middle Holocene phase in the southern Modoc Plateau of northeastern California, dated before ca. 2500 B.C. The Eagle Lake phase was followed by the Aspen Grove phase. Characteristic artifacts include Northern and Parman projectile points. (Pippin et al. 1979Raven 1984)

EARLY. A middle to late Holocene horizon or period distinguished in several portions of California and variously dated between ca. 5000-1500 and 2000-500 B.C. The Early horizon has been identified with the middleArchaic period. According to some chronological schemes, the Early horizon succeeded the Milling Stonehorizon or the early Archaic period and was followed by the Middle horizon. (Beardsley 19481954Belous 1953Heizer 1964Heizer and Fenenga 1939Jones et al. 2007Lillard et al. 1939Milliken et al. 2007)

EARLY BAY. A late Holocene co-tradition or complex distinguished in the southern San Francisco Bay area and dated between ca. 2000-1700 and 500 B.C. The Early Bay complex was classified within the Early horizon. It locally succeeded the Sandhill Bluff aspect and was followed by the Ellis Landing aspect. The complex was identified by Bert Gerow. (Gerow 1974Gerow with Force 1968Hylkema 2002Milliken et al. 2007)

EARLY MAN. A proposed Pleistocene and early Holocene horizon. The Early Man horizon has been identified with Pre-Projectile Point and Paleo-Indian assemblages. It was followed by the Milling Stonehorizon. (Wallace 1955)

EICHENBERGER. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 900 and 1100. The Eichenberger phase has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergentperiod, the Augustine pattern, and the Hollister aspect. It succeeded the Calhoun phase and was followed by the Hollister phase. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

EL CAPITÁN. A middle Holocene phase on the Santa Barbara coast of southern California, dated between ca. 3400 and 2000 B.C. The El Capitán phase has been identified with the Oak Grove people and the Milling Stonehorizon, in contrast with the contemporaneous Extraños phase or Hunting people in the same region. It succeeded the Goleta phase, perhaps after a hiatus, and was followed by the Rincón phase. It was defined by William M. Harrison. (Harrison 1964Harrison and Harrison 1966Moratto 1984)

ELLIS LANDING. A late Holocene aspect or facies in the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento delta areas, dated between ca. 500 B.C. and A.D. 400-1000. The Ellis Landing aspect has been classified within the Middlehorizon and the late Archaic period. Phases distinguished within the aspect include SlaterGalindo, andNueces in the lower Sacramento delta and CastroAlvaradoSherwood, and Sobrante in the east Bay area. In various areas, the Ellis Landing aspect succeeded the Early Bay complex, the Stege aspect, or the Pachecoaspect, and it was followed by the Meganos complex or the Emeryville aspect. The Ellis Landing aspect has been identified with the Costanoan ethnolinguistic group. The Ellis Landing Site is CCO-295. (Beardsley 1954;Bennyhoff 1994bMilliken et al. 2007)

EL PORTAL. A hypothetical early Holocene phase in the central Sierra Nevada. (Rondeau 1999)

EMERGENT. A late Holocene period, phase, or stage recognized particularly in northern and central California and dated after ca. A.D. 300-1100. The Emergent is equivalent to the Late period and considered to be a non-agricultural counterpart of the Formative stage. The period has sometimes been divided into lower (ca. A.D. 500-1000 to 1500) and upper (ca. A.D. 1500 to 1800) phases. (Fredrickson 1974Milliken et al. 2007)

EMERSON. A late Holocene phase in Surprise Valley, in northeastern California, dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 500. The Emerson phase succeeded the Bare Creek phase and was followed by the Alkali phase. It was defined by James F. O’Connell. Characteristic artifacts include Elko and Humboldt projectile points. (O’Connell 19711975)

EMERY. A late Holocene tradition in central California, essentially equivalent to the Middle horizon,Cosumnes culture, and Berkeley pattern. The tradition was named after the Emeryville Site (ALA-309). (Fredrickson 1994Moratto 1984)

EMERYVILLE. A late Holocene aspect or facies in the San Francisco Bay area, dated after ca. A.D. 1000. It has been classified within the Late period and the Emergent period. The Emeryville aspect locally succeeded the Ellis Landing aspect or the Meganos complex and followed by the Fernandez facies. The Emeryville aspect has been identified with the Costanoan ethnolinguistic group. The Emeryville Site is ALA-309. (Beardsley 1954Milliken et al. 2007)

ENCINITAS. An early, middle, and late Holocene tradition in coastal southern California, dated between ca. 6000-5500 B.C. and 3000 B.C.-A.D. 1000. The Encinitas tradition includes units otherwise labelled Greven KnollLa JollaPaumaTopangaMilling Stone, and Oak Grove. It succeeded the San Dieguito tradition and was followed in various areas by the CampbellDel ReyPalomarShoshonean, and Yuman traditions. The Encinitas tradition has been identified with the Hokan ethnolinguistic group. It was defined by Claude N. Warren, based on earlier notes by Malcolm J. Rogers. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984Sutton and Gardner 2010;Warren 1968)

ESTERO. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Marin area of central California and dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Estero phase has been classified within the Late horizon and the Emergent period. Early and late subphases have been distinguished, separated at ca. A.D. 1700. The Estero phase succeeded the Mendozaphase. It was defined by Richard K. Beardsley; the Estero Site is MRN-232. (Beardsley 1954Bennyhoff 1994bMilliken et al. 2007)

EXCHEQUER. A late Holocene phase distinguished in the Dinkey Creek area of the Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. 1200 B.C. and A.D. 600. It succeeded the Strawberry phase and was followed by the Dinkeyphase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

EXTRAÑOS. A middle Holocene phase in the Santa Barbara area of southern California, dated between ca. 2900 and 2500 B.C. The Extraños phase corresponded to the Early Mainland period and the Hunting culture. It in part succeeded and was contemporary with the El Capitán phase and was followed by the Rincón phase. It was defined by William M. Harrison. (Harrison 1964Harrison and Harrison 1966)

FARMINGTON. An early Holocene complex in the San Joaquin Valley east of Stockton in central California, usually dated between ca. 10,000 and 5000 B.C. but sometimes interpreted as much later. The complex was reported by Adán E. Treganza. (Moratto 1984Ritter et al. 1976Treganza 1952Treganza and Heizer 1953)

FERNANDEZ. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Fernandez phase has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergent period, the Augustine pattern, and the Emeryville aspect. Early and late subphases have been distinguished, separated at ca. A.D. 1700. The Fernandez phase locally succeeded the Emeryville and Newark phases. It was defined by Richard K. Beardsley; the type site is the Fernandez Site (CCO-259). (Beardsley 1954Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

FISH CREEK. A late Holocene phase distinguished in the Kerckhoff Reservoir area of the Sierra Nevada and dated between ca. A.D. 600 and 1400. The Fish Creek phase succeeded the Kerckhoff phase and was followed by the Auberry phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

FORMATIVE. A late Holocene stage, widely recognized in North America but typically associated with societies practicing agriculture. The Emergent stage in California has been considered as corresponding to the Formative stage elsewhere. (Fredrickson 1974Heizer 1958Willey and Phillips 1958)

FLUTED POINT. A continent-wide late Pleistocene and early Holocene stage, tradition, or co-tradition, distinguished in particular in the Southwest and the Great Plains, and dated before ca. 9000 B.C. It is essentially synonymous with the Big Game Hunting tradition. Characteristic artifacts are fluted or Clovisprojectile points. (Hester 1973Krieger 1964Moratto 1984)

FRAZERS POINT. An middle and late Holocene phase on Santa Cruz Island in southern California, dated between ca. 3000 and 1000 B.C. It succeeded the Christys Beach phase and was followed by the Posa phase. (Hoover 1971)

GABLES. A late Holocene phase at the Santa Rosa locality in northwestern California, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Gables phase has been classified within the Augustine pattern, the Late period, and the Emergentperiod. It succeeded the Rincon phase. Characteristic artifacts include small corner-notched projectile points, hopper mortars, and clam shell disk beads. (Jones and Hayes 2007Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

GALINDO. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento delta area, dated between ca. A.D. 200 and 400. The Galindo phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeleypattern, and the Ellis Landing aspect. It succeeded the Slater phase or the Alamo facies and was followed by the Ramon phase. (Breschini 1983)

GARWOOD. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated to ca. 1500 B.C. The Garwood phase has been classified within the Early horizon and the middle Archaic period. It was followed by the Bear Creek phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

GILLEM BLUFF. A late Holocene phase in the Tule Lake area of northeastern California. The Gillem Bluff phase is classified within the Modoc horizon. (Raven 1984Squier 1956)

GLEN. The late Holocene phase in the Dinkey Creek area of the Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Glen phase succeeded the Dinkey phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

GODDARD. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. 200 B.C. and A.D. 100. The Goddard phase has been classified within the Houx aspect of the Berkeley pattern. It succeeded the Kolb phase and was followed by the River Glen phase. Characteristic artifacts include Excelsiorprojectile points. The type site is NAP-1. (Bennyhoff 1994aFredrickson 1984)

GOLETA. An early to middle Holocene phase on the Santa Barbara coast of southern California, dated between ca. 5100 and 4500 B.C. The Goleta phase has been identified with the Oak Grove people and theMilling Stone horizon. It was followed, perhaps after a hiatus, by the El Capitán phase. The Goleta phase was defined by William M. Harrison. (Harrison 1964)

GONZAGA. A late Holocene complex or phase in the San Joaquin Valley and adjacent coast ranges, dated between ca. A.D. 300-950 and A.D. 1000-1500. The Gonzaga complex succeeded the Pacheco complex and was followed by the Panoche complex. It was defined at the Grayson Site (MER-S-94). (Jones et al. 2007Olsen and Payen 1969)

GREASY CREEK. A late Holocene phase on the Kaweah River area of the southern Sierra Nevada, dated before ca. A.D. 1300. The Greasy Creek phase was followed by the Slick Rock phase. It has been identified with the Yokuts ethnolinguistic group. The Greasy Creek Site is TUL-1. (Moratto 1984Pendergast and Meighan 1959)

GREVEN KNOLL. A middle to late Holocene pattern in inland southern California west of San Gorgonio Pass and north of San Diego County. The Greven Knoll pattern was a geographical branch of the Encinitastradition. It was preceded by the San Dieguito tradition and followed by the Del Rey tradition. Three phases have been distinguished: Greven Knoll I (ca. 7400-2000 B.C.), Greven Knoll II (ca. 2000-1000 B.C.), and Greven Knoll III (ca. 1000 B.C.-A.D. 10000, the latter corresponding to the Sayles complex. Makoto Kowta initially suggested the use of the term for what would subsequently be termed the Greven Knoll I and II phases. The Greven Knoll site is in Yucaipa, in San Bernardino County. (Kowta 1969Sutton and Gardner 2010)

GUNTHER. A late Holocene pattern in northwestern California, dated after ca. A.D. 250-1000. The Gunther pattern succeeded the Mendocino pattern. Characteristic artifacts include Gunther projectile points. The pattern has been identified with the Algic and Athapaskan ethnolinguistic groups. The designation derives from the Wiyot village of Tolowot (site HUM-67) on Gunther Island in Humboldt Bay. (Connolly 19861988;Hildebrandt 2007)

GYPSUM. A late Holocene period or culture in the Mojave Desert, dated between ca. 2000 B.C. and A.D. 500. The Gypsum period generally coincides with the Newberry or Amargosa I period. It succeeded the Pintoperiod and was followed by the Saratoga Springs period. Characteristic artifacts include Elko and Gypsumprojectile points. The Gypusm culture has been identified with the Uto-Aztecan ethnolinguistic group. The Gypsum Cave culture was defined by Harrington at Gypsum Cave in southern Nevada. (Hall and Basgall 1994;Harrington 1933Sutton 1996Warren and Crabtree 1986)

HAIWEE. A late Holocene period in the Mojave Desert and Great Basin, dated between ca. A.D. 700-800 and 1200-1300. The Haiwee period is essentially synonymous with the Saratoga Springs period. It succeeded theNewberry period and was followed by the Marana period. (Bettinger and Taylor 1974Gilreath and Hildebrandt 1997)

HAKATAYA. A late Holocene root or people in southeastern California and western Arizona, dated after ca. A.D. 700. Hakataya is usually used synonymously with Yuman or Patayan. The Hakataya root has been subdivided into the Patayan and Laquish stems. Characteristic traits include Tizon and Lower Coloradoceramics, Cottonwood and Desert projectile points, and cremation. (Schroeder 19601979Warren 1984)

HICKS. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento area, dated between ca. A.D. 100 and 300. The Hicks phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeley pattern, and the Morse aspect. It succeeded the Morse phase and was followed by the Brazil phase. The Hicks Site is SAC-60. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

HIGHLAND. Two units: a middle Holocene culture on Santa Rosa Island, off the southern California coast; and a late Holocene phase in the Big Sur area on the central California coast. The Highland culture has been dated between ca. 4000 and 2000 B.C., succeeding the Early Dune Dweller culture and followed by the Late Dune Dweller culture. The Highland phase has been dated between ca. A.D. 1000 and 1150-1300, classified within the transition between the Middle and Late periods and the Hunting culture. It succeeded the Willow Creek phase or the Little Pico II phase and was followed by the Dolan phase. Characteristic artifacts includeCentral Coast projectile points. (Orr 1968Jones and Ferneau 2002Jones et al. 2007)

HOLOCENE. The geologically defined epoch forming the later portion of the Quaternary period, subsequent to the Pleistocene epoch and dating after ca. 10,000 B.C. The Holocene epoch has commonly been divided into early (ca. 10,000 to 5000 B.C.), middle (ca. 5000 to 2000 B.C.) and late (after ca. 2000 B.C.) periods.

HOLLAND. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated between ca. 500 and 200 B.C. The Holland phase succeeded the Bear Creek phase and was followed by the Castle phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

HOLLISTER. A late Holocene aspect and a phase or facies in the Sacramento area. The Hollister aspect has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergent period and the Augustine pattern, and dated after ca. A.D. 700-900. Subdivisions of the Hollister aspect in the Sacramento area include the Eichenberger, Hollister,Johnson, and Mosher phases; in the Sacramento delta, the VealeHotchkiss, and Danville phases. The Hollister aspect succeeded the Morse and Ellis Landing aspects of the Berkeley pattern. The Hollister phase has been dated between ca. A.D. 1100 and 1300; it succeeded the Eichenberger phase and was followed by the Johnson phase. The Hollister phase has been identified with the Plains Miwok ethnolinguistic group. The Hollister Site is SAC-21. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

HORSESHOE BEND. A late Holocene phase distinguished in the Stanislaus River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. A.D. 1250 and 1800. It succeeded the Redbud phase. The Horseshoe Bend phase has been identified with the Sierra Miwok ethnolinguistic group. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

HOTCHKISS. A late Holocene culture and a phase or facies the Sacramento delta area. The Hotchkiss culture, dated after ca. A.D. 500, has been identified with the Late period and the Augustine pattern. Locally it succeeded the Cosumnes culture. The designation was proposed by Sonia R. Ragir. The Hotchkiss phase, dated between ca. A.D. 1100 and 1300, succeeded the Veale phase and was followed by the Danville phase. The Hotchkiss Site is CCO-138. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978Ragir 1972)

HOUX. A late Holocene phase, aspect, or pattern identified in the Napa and Clear Lake areas of northwestern California and dated between ca. 1500-500 B.C. and A.D. 100-1000. It has been classified within the Early andMiddle periods, the middle to upper Archaic period, and the Berkeley pattern. The Houx aspect locally succeeded the Creager phase or the Hultman aspect and was followed by the Redbud phase or the St. Helenaaspect. In the Napa area, a sequence of phases within the Houx aspect has been distinguished: Bale,RutherfordKolbGoddard, and River Glen. Characteristic artifacts of the Houx phase include large, stemmed projectile points; Excelsior points; formalized burials; and mortars and pestles, but not milling stones or hand stones. The Houx aspect has been identified with the Lake Miwok or the Yukian ethnolinguistic groups. The Houx Site is LAK-261, in Excelsior Valley near Clear Lake. (Fredrickson 197419841994Hildebrandt 2007;Milliken et al. 2007White 2002)

HULTMAN. A middle to late Holocene aspect or phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. 3500-3000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.-A.D. 1. It has been classified within the Early period, the middleArchaic period, and the Borax Lake or Mendocino pattern. It was followed by the Houx aspect or the Balephase. The type site is NAP-131. (Bennyhoff 1994aMilliken et al. 2007White 2002)

HUNTING. A middle to late Holocene culture, pattern, or people in the northern portion of the Southern California Bight and the central California coast, dated between ca. 5000-3000 B.C. and A.D. 1000-1200. The Hunting pattern is equivalent to the Campbell tradition and perhaps, in its northern range, to the Berkeleypattern. Locally it succeeded the Oak Grove culture and was followed by the Canaliño culture. Local manifestations of the Hunting culture on the central California coast include the Año NuevoCoon Creek,HighlandLittle PicoSandhill BluffSurRedwoodSaundersVierra, and Willow Creek phases. Characteristic artifacts include large, stemmed and notched projectile points. The culture was defined by David Banks Rogers. (Harrison and Harrison 1966Milliken et al. 2007D. Rogers 1929)

INDIAN BANKS. A late Holocene phase in the Tule Lake area of northeastern California. The phase has been classified within the Modoc horizon. (Raven 1984Squier 1956)

INTERMEDIATE. A middle to late Holocene horizon recognized primarily in coastal southern California. The Intermediate horizon has been identified with the Hunting culture and the Campbell tradition. It succeeded theMilling Stone horizon and was followed by the Late horizon. (Wallace 1955)

INTERMONTANE WESTERN. A geographically extensive Holocene tradition encompassing the Desertculture as well as related traditions in the Southwest and Plateau regions. (Jennings 1964)

INTERPRETIVE. An early Holocene phase on the Big Sur portion of the central California coast, dated between ca. 8000 and 3500 B.C. The Interpretive phase is classified with the Milling Stone horizon and the early Archaic period. It was followed by the Redwood phase. (Jones et al. 2007)

IRVINE. A late Holocene complex in coastal Orange County, dated between ca. A.D. 600 and 1800. It succeeded the La Jolla complex. The Irvine complex has been identified with the Luiseño ethnolinguistic group. It was defined by Lester A. Ross. (Moratto 1984Ross 1969)

ISLAND. A label applied to two different interpretive constructs relating to the Channel Islands of southern California. As defined by Ronald L. Olson, it refered to a sequence of middle to late Holocene periods on Santa Cruz Island, dated after ca. 2400 B.C. The Early Island period has been dated between ca. 2400 B.C. and A.D. 1, while the Late Island period extended from A.D. 1 to the historic period. As defined by Mark Q. Sutton, it refers to a late Holocene pattern on the southern Channel Islands of Santa Catalina, San Clemente, San Nicolas, and Santa Barbara. Together with the Angeles pattern, the Island pattern made up the Del Reytradition. Four phases, with distinctive material traits, settlement patterns, and linguistic correlates, were distinguished: Island I (ca. 1200 B.C.-A.D. 500), Island II (ca. A.D. 500-1250), Island III (ca. A.D. 1250-1550), and Island IV (ca. A.D. 1550-1800). (Olson 1930Sutton 2010)

JOHNSON. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento area, dated between ca. A.D. 1300 and 1500. The Johnson phase has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergent period, the Augustine pattern, and the Hollister aspect. It succeeded the Hollister phase and was followed by the Mosher phase. The Johnson Site is SAC-6. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

KARLO. A late Holocene period in the Honey Lake area of northeastern California, dated between ca. 2000 B.C. and A.D. 1. The Karlo Site is LAS-7. (Raven 1984Riddell 1960)

KENNEDY. A late Pleistocene and early Holocene phase in the Kern Plateau area of the southern Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 11,500 and 6500 B.C. The Kennedy phase was followed by the Lamont phase. Characteristic artifacts include Great Basin projectile points. (Garfinkel 2007)

KERCKHOFF. A late Holocene phase distinguished in the Kerckhoff Reservoir area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 1200 B.C. and A.D. 600. The Kerckhoff phase succeeded the San Joaquin phase and was followed by the Fish Creek phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

KINGS BEACH. A late Holocene phase in the Tahoe/Truckee and Blue Lakes areas of the Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. A.D. 500-600. The Kings Beach phase succeeded the late Martis phase in the Tahoe/Truckee area and the Blue Lakes phase in the Blue Lakes area. Early and late stages of the Kings Beach phase have been distinguished, divided at ca. A.D. 1200-1250. Characteristic artifacts include small projectile points:Eastgate and Rose Spring types during the early Kings Beach stage, and Desert and Cottonwood types during the late Kings Beach stage. The Kings Beach phase has been identified with the Washoeethnolinguistic group. (Hull 2007Moratto 19841999)

KINGSLEY. A late Holocene complex in the southern Cascade range of northeastern California, dated between ca. 1000-500 B.C. and A.D. 500. The Kingsley complex succeeded the Deadman complex and was followed by the Dye Creek complex. Kingsley Cave is site TEH-1. (Baumhoff 19551957Sundahl 1992)

KLONDIKE. A late Holocene phase in Owens Valley in east-central California, dated after ca. A.D. 1300. It succeeded the Baker phase. Characteristic artifacts include Cottonwood and Desert projectile points. The Klondike phase has been identified with the Numic expansion. The phase was defined by Robert L. Bettinger. (Bettinger 1976)

KOLB. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. 500 and 200 B.C. It has been classified within the Houx aspect and the Berkeley pattern. The Kolb phase succeeded theRutherford phase and was followed by the Goddard phase. Characteristic artifacts include Excelsior projectile points. The type site is NAP-32. (Bennyhoff 1994aFredrickson 1984)

LAGUNA. A late Holocene phase at the Santa Rosa locality in northwestern California, dated between ca. 1500 B.C.-A.D. 500 and A.D. 1000-1200. The Laguna phase has been classified within the middle to upperArchaic, the Early and Middle periods, and the Augustine pattern. It succeeded the Black Hill phase and was followed by the Rincon phase. Characteristic artifacts include shouldered lanceolate projectile points, bowl mortars, and pestles. (Jones and Hayes 2007Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

LAIRDS BAY. A middle Holocene horizon in northeastern California, dated to ca. 2000 B.C. The Lairds Bay horizon succeeded the Narrows horizon and was followed by the Modoc horizon. Characteristic artifacts include Northern and Elko projectile points. Luther S. Cressman defined the horizon in the Lower Klamath Lake area of southern Oregon. (Cressman 1942Raven 1984)

LA JOLLA. A middle Holocene culture in coastal San Diego and Orange counties, dated between ca. 6500 B.C. and 1000 B.C.-A.D. 700. The La Jolla culture has been considered a variant of the Milling Stone horizon and of the Encinitas tradition, belonging to the Archaic period. Two or three chronological phases have often been recognized. Characteristic elements include milling stones and handstones, cobble-based flaked tools, a scarcity of projectile points, shell middens, and inhumations. The culture was defined by Malcolm J. Rogers, taking its name from the coastal community of La Jolla. (Gallegos 1987Harding 1951Moriarty 1966Rogers 1945Shumway et al. 1961Sutton and Gardner 2010Warren 1964)

LAKE MANIX. A complex or industry, possibly Pleistocene in age, in the central Mojave Desert. Characteristic artifacts include percussion-flaked bifaces, chopping and scraping tools, and cores. The complex was named by Ruth D. Simpson. (Simpson 195819601961Warren 1996)

LAKE MOHAVE. An early Holocene complex, tradition, culture, or period in the Mojave Desert of southeastern California, dated between ca. 10,000-8000 B.C. and 7000-3700 B.C. The Lake Mohave culture has been classified as either Paleo-Indian or Archaic. It has sometimes been considered a local expression of theSan Dieguito complex. The Lake Mohave tradition was followed by the Pinto tradition. Characteristic artifacts include Lake Mohave and Silver Lake projectile points and crescentics, with an absence or scarcity of ground stone. Elizabeth W. C. Campbell described the complex at the playa of Pleistocene Lake Mohave, near Baker. (Campbell et al. 1937Sutton 19881996Wallace 1962Warren and Crabtree 1986)

LAMONT. An early to late Holocene phase in the Kern Plateau area of the southern Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 6500 and 1200 B.C. The Lamont phase succeeded the Kennedy phase and was followed by theCanebrake phase. Characteristic artifacts include Pinto projectile points. (Garfinkel 2007)

LA PAZ. A late Holocene branch on the lower Colorado River south of Blythe, dated after ca. A.D. 700. The La Paz branch has been classified within the Laquish stem of the Hakataya root. (Schroeder 1979Warren 1984)

LAQUISH. A late Holocene branch or stem on the lower Colorado River in southeastern California, dated after ca. A.D. 700. Laquish has been classified within the Patayan or Hakataya root. The Laquish branch has been identified specifically with the area near the Colorado River delta. The Laquish stem has been subdivided intoAmacavaLa Paz, and Palo Verde branches. (Colton 1945Schroeder 1960Warren 1984)

LATE. A late Holocene horizon or period recognized in several portions of California and dated after ca. A.D. 250-1000. It has been classified with the Emergent stage and the Pacific period. The Late period succeeded theMiddle period, and a transitional phase between them has sometimes been distinguished. Subperiods have also been recognized (for example, MLT, L1, and L2). (Beardsley 19481954Belous 1953Heizer 1964Heizer and Fenenga 1939Jones et al. 2007Lillard et al. 1939Milliken et al. 2007Wallace 1955)

LITHIC. A Pleistocene and early Holocene stage applied to the continent as a whole and occasionally cited in California. The Lithic stage is generallty synonymous with the Paleo-Indian stage. However, Early Lithic has also been used to refer to a hypothetical pre-Paleo-Indian stage, predating ca. 10,000 B.C. (Fredrickson 1994;Willey and Phillips 1958)

LITTLE LAKE. A middle to late Holocene period in the Mojave Desert and the Great Basin, dated between ca. 4000-3500 and 1500-1200 B.C. The Little Lake period is essentially synonymous with the Pinto period. It succeeded the Mojave period and was followed by the Newberry period. Characteristic artifacts include Little Lake and Humboldt projectile points. The Little Lake period was defined at the Stahl Site near Little Lake in southwestern Inyo County. (Bettinger and Taylor 1974Gilreath and Hildebrandt 1997)

LITTLE PICO. Two successive middle Holocene phases in the San Luis Obispo and Big Sur areas on the central California coast, classified within the Hunting culture. Little Pico I succeeded the Diablo phase and has been classified within the Early period and dated between ca. 3500 and 600 B.C.; Little Pico II belongs to theMiddle period, dated between ca. 600 B.C. and A.D. 1000, and was followed by the Coon Creek phase or theHighland phase. Characteristic artifacts for both Little Pico phases include Central Coast stemmed points. (Jones and Waugh 1995Jones et al. 2007)

LLANO SECO. A late Holocene phase in the Sacramento Valley of northern California, dated between ca. 500 B.C. and A.D. 1000. The Llano Seco phase succeeded the Wurlitzer phase and was followed by the Patrickphase. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984)

LOBENSELS. A late Holocene facies in the Sacramento area. The Lobensels facies has been classified within the Middle period and the Berkeley pattern. It succeeded the Windmiller culture and was followed by theMorse facies. The Van Lobensels Site is SAC-73. (Breschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

LONG MEADOW. A middle Holocene phase distinguished in the Helms Project area of the Sierra Nevada and dated to ca. 2500 B.C. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

LOVELOCK. A middle to late Holocene culture in the western Great Basin, including northeastern California, dated between 4000-2700 B.C. and A.D. 500. The Lovelock culture has been identified with the Utianethnolinguistic group. The type site is Lovelock Cave in western Nevada. (Hattori 1982Heizer and Napton 1970Loud and Harrington 1929Moratto 1984)

LYMAN. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Lyman phase has been classified within the St. Helena aspect and the Augustine pattern. It succeeded theDavis phase. The type site is NAP-348. (Bennyhoff 1994aFredrickson 1984)

MACKERRICHER. A late Holocene aspect on the Mendocino County coast of northwestern California, dated between ca. A.D. 80 and 250. The MacKerricher aspect was followed by an early Gunther aspect. Characteristic artifacts include Excelsior projectile points. The aspect was defined by Greg White at MacKerricher State Park. It has been identified with the Pomo ethnolinguistic group. (Jones 1992White 1991)

MADERA. A late Holocene phase in the Chowchilla River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. It succeeded the Raymond phase. The Madera phase has been identified with the Sierra Miwokethnolinguistic group. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

MAINLAND. A sequence of middle and late Holocene periods on the Santa Barbara mainland of southern California, dated after ca. 3000 B.C. Three periods have been distinguished: Early Mainland (ca. 3000 to 2500 B.C.), Intermediate Mainland (ca. 2500 to 2000 B.C.) and Late Mainland (after ca. 2000 B.C.). The Early and Intermediate Mainland periods have been equated with the Hunting culture, while the Late Mainland period corresponds to the Canaliño culture. The Mainland periods were defined by Ronald L. Olson. (Olson 1930)

MALPAIS. A Pleistocene or early Holocene industry in the deserts of southeastern California. The Malpais industry is usually equated with the earliest phase of the San Dieguito complex. (Rogers 19391958Warren 1967)

MALTBY. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento delta area, dated between ca. A.D. 700 and 900. The Maltby phase has been classified within the Late horizon, the upper Archaic period, and the Augustinepattern. It succeeded the Nueces phase and was followed by the Veale phase. The Maltby Site is CCO-250. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

MANIX LAKE. A complex or industry in the Mojave Desert, possibly dating from the Pleistocene. The Manix Lake industry is characterized by large, roughly worked bifaces and other simple stone tools. Pleistocene Manix Lake was located on the middle course of the Mojave River, east of Barstow. (Bamforth and Dorn 1988;Budinger 2004Glennan 1976Simpson 1958)

MARANA. A late Holocene period in the Mojave Desert and Great Basin, dated after ca. A.D. 1200-1300. The Marana period is essentially synonymous with the Shoshonean period. It succeeded the Haiwee period. (Bettinger and Taylor 1974Gilreath and Hildebrandt 1997)

MARIPOSA. A late Holocene phase or complex in the Yosemite area of the Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. A.D. 1200-1250. It succeeded the Tamarack phase. Characteristic artifacts include Cottonwood and Desert projectile points. The Mariposa phase has been identified with the Sierra Miwok ethnolinguistic group. The Mariposa complex was identified by James A. Bennyhoff. (Bennyhoff 1956Hull 2007Moratto 1999Rondeau 1999)

MARTIN. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 700. The Martin phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeleypattern, and the Meganos aspect. It succeed the Orwood phase and was followed by the Dal Porto phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

MARTIS. A middle to late Holocene phase or complex in the Tahoe/Truckee area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 3000-2000 B.C. and A.D. 500-600. It succeeded the Spooner phase and was followed by the Kings Beach phase. Two or three subphases have been distinguished: early Martis (ca. 3000 to 1000 B.C.) and late Martis (ca. 1000 B.C. to A.D. 600); or early (ca. 2000 to 1500 B.C.), middle (ca. 1500 to 500 B.C.) and late (ca. 500 B.C. to A.D. 500). Characteristic artifacts include Elko and Martis projectile points. The Martis has been identified with the Maiduan ethnolinguistic group. (Hull 2007Moratto 19841999)

MCCLURE. A late Holocene aspect, phase, or facies in the San Francisco Bay area and northern San Joaquin Valley. The McClure aspect has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, and theBerkeley pattern. It was followed by the Mendoza aspect or the Miller Creek phase. The McClure phase has been identified with the Coast Miwok ethnolinguistic group. It was defined by Richard K. Beardsley; the McClure Site is MRN-266. (Beardsley 1954Bennyhoff 19861994bElsasser 1978Meighan 1955Milliken et al. 2007)

MEGANOS. A late Holocene aspect or culture in central California, dated between ca. A.D. 200-500 and 700-1000. The Meganos aspect has been classified within the upper Archaic period, the Middle horizon, and theBerkeley pattern. It included the CastleWoodsOrwood, and Martin phases. Farther west, intrusive Meganos phases included Ramon and Philippi. The Meganos aspect succeeded the Windmiller pattern. The Meganos aspect has been identified with the Yokutsan linguistic group. It was named by James A. Bennyhoff, based on a preference for burial in sand mounds (in Spanish, meganos). (Bennyhoff 19941994bHylkema 2002Milliken et al. 2007)

MENDOCINO. A middle to late Holocene pattern, aspect, or complex in northwestern California, dated between ca. 3500-1000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.-A.D. 500. The Mendocino pattern has been identified with the Earlyperiod and the middle Archaic period. The Mendocino pattern succeeded the Borax Lake pattern and, in its southern reaches, the Berkeley pattern; it was followed in some regions by the GuntherAugustine, or Berkeley patterns. Subdivisions of the Mendocino pattern include the Mendocino aspect in the northern portion of its range, the Hultman aspect in the south, the Skaggs phase at Warm Springs in the Russian River drainage, and Spring Lake and Black Hill phases at the Santa Rosa locality. An alternative scheme interpreted the Mendocino aspect as a subunit of the Borax Lake pattern. Characteristic artifacts include Willits,Mendocino, and Trinity projectile points. The aspect has been identified with the Pomo ethnolinguistic group. The complex was defined by Clement W. Meighan at site MEN-500. (Dowdall 2002Fredrickson 1984;Hildebrandt 2007Jones et al. 2007Meighan 1955Milliken et al. 2007White 2002)

MENDOZA. A late Holocene aspect, phase, or facies in the Marin area of west-central California, dated between ca. A.D. 1000-1100 and 1300-1500. The Mendoza phase has been classified within the Late horizon and the Emergent period. It succeeded the McClure phase and was followed by the Estero phase. The Mendoza facies was defined by Richard K. Beardsley; Mendoza Mound is site MRN-275. (Beardsley 1954;Bennyhoff 1994bMilliken et al. 2007)

MENLO. A middle Holocene phase in Surprise Valley, in Modoc County, dated between ca. 4500 and 2500 B.C. The Menlo phase has been classified within the Northeastern California Archaic tradition. It was followed by the Bare Creek phase. Characteristic artifacts include Northern projectile points. The phase was defined by James F. O’Connell at the Menlo Baths Site (MOD-197). (O’Connell 19711975)

MESILLA. A late Holocene complex in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Oroville, dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 1. The Mesilla complex was followed by the Bidwell complex. The Mesilla complex has been identified with the Hokan ethnolinguistic group. (Moratto 1984Ritter 1970)

MESQUITE FLAT. A middle to late Holocene complex in the Death Valley area of eastern California, dated between ca. 3000 B.C. and 500 B.C.-A.D. 1. The Mesquite Flat complex is classified within the Death Valley II period. The complex succeeded the Nevares Spring or Lake Mohave complex, possibly after an extended hiatus, and was followed by the Saratoga Springs complex. Characteristic artifacts include Pinto and Elkoprojectile points. The Mesquite Flat Site is in northern Death Valley National Park. (Wallace 19771988;Warren 1984)

METCALF. An early to middle Holocene phase or aspect on the Santa Cruz-Santa Clara-San Mateo portion of California’s central coast, dated between ca. 7000 and 3500 B.C. The Metcalf phase has been classified within the Milling Stone or early Archaic period. It was followed by the Sandhill Bluff phase. (Jones et al. 2007;Milliken et al. 2007)

MICAS. A middle and late Holocene tradition in the San Francisco Bay area of central California, dated after ca. 3000 B.C. The Micas tradition includes the Berkeley and Augustine patterns. It has been identified with theUtian ethnolinguistic group and takes its designation from the names Miwok and Costanoan. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

MIDDLE. A late Holocene horizon or period distinguished in many portions of California and dated between ca. 2000-400 B.C. and A.D. 1-1000. Alternative designations have included Transitional and Intermediate. The Middle horizon has been classified within the upper Archaic period. It succeeded the Early horizon and was followed by the Late horizon, sometimes with transitional phases being recognized. Subperiods (e.g., EMT, M1, M2, M3, and M4) or phases (e.g. Early, Intermediate, Late, Terminal, and Transitional) have also been distinguished locally. (Beardsley 19481954Belous 1953Cartier 1988Heizer 1964Heizer and Fenenga 1939;Jones et al. 2007Lillard et al. 1939Milliken et al. 2007)

MILL CREEK. A late Holocene complex in the southern Cascade range of northeastern California, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Mill Creek complex succeeded the Dye Creek complex. Mill Creek has been interpreted as an aspect of the Tehama pattern. Characteristic artifacts include Desert projectile points. (Baumhoff 1955,1957Sundahl 1992)

MILLER. A late Holocene facies in the southern Sacramento Valley. The Miller facies has been classified within the Late horizon. It succeeded the Sandhill facies. The Miller Site is COL-1. (Breschini 1983)

MILLER CREEK. A late Holocene phase in the Marin area of west-central California, dated between ca. A.D. 400 and 500. The Miller Creek phase has been classified within the Middle horizon and the upper Archaicperiod. It succeeded the McClure phase and was followed by the Cauley phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

MILLING STONE. A middle Holocene horizon, pattern, or culture recognized in many parts of California and dated between ca. 8000-5000 B.C. and 2000 B.C.-A.D. 500. It is associated with the early Archaic period. Regional variants include Borax LakeLa JollaPaumaSaylesTopanga, and Oak Grove. The Milling Stone horizon succeeded the Early Man horizon and was followed by the Intermediate horizon. Characteristic artifacts include milling stones, handstones, and scarce projectile points. (Fitzgerald and Jones 1999Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007True et al. 1979Wallace 19541955)

MODOC. A late Holocene horizon in northeastern California. The Modoc horizon has been subdivided intoIndian BanksGillem Bluff, and Tule Lake phases. It succeeded the Lairds Bay horizon. Characteristic artifacts include Rose SpringGunther, and Desert projectile points. Luther S. Cressman defined the horizon in the Lower Klamath Lake area of southern Oregon. (Cressman 1942Raven 1984)

MOJAVE. A middle Holocene period in the Mojave Desert and Great Basin, dated between 6000 and 4000 B.C. The Mojave period is essentially synonymous with the Lake Mohave period. It was followed by the Little Lake period. (Bettinger and Taylor 1974)

MOKELUMNE. A late Holocene phase in the Salt Springs area of the Mokelumne River canyon in the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1250. The Mokelumne phase succeeded the Blue Lakes phase and was followed by the Amador phase. Characteristic artifacts include Rose Spring/Eastgate projectile points and small saucer and square-saddle Olivella beads. The phase was defined by James H. Cleland. (Cleland 1988;Hull 2007)

MONTEREY. A late Holocene pattern in the Monterey Bay area of central California, dated after ca. 500 B.C. The Monterey pattern succeeded the Sur pattern. The Monterey pattern has been identified with theCostanoan ethnolinguistic group. Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat defined the pattern. (Breschini 1983;Jones and Hylkema 1988)

MOON MOUNTAIN. A late Holocene phase in the lower Colorado River, dated after ca. A.D. 1300. The Moon Mountain phase has been classified within the Lowland Patayan stem. It succeeded the Bouse II phase. (Harner 1958)

MORSE. A late Holocene aspect and a phase or facies in the Sacramento area of central California. The Morse aspect has been dated between ca. 200 B.C. and A.D. 700 and classified within the Middle horizon, the upperArchaic period, and the Berkeley pattern. Subdivisions of the Morse aspect include the Morse, HicksBrazil, and Need phases. The Morse aspect succeeded the Lobensels facies or the Windmiller pattern. The Morse aspect was followed by the Hollister aspect of the Augustine pattern. The Morse phase (dated between ca. 200 B.C. and A.D. 100) was followed by the Hicks phase. The Morse aspect has been identified with the Bay-Plains Miwok ethnolinguistic group. The Morse Mound Site is SAC-66. (Bennyhoff 1994a1994bBreschini 1983Moratto 1984)

MOSHER. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento area, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Mosher phase has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergent period, the Augustine pattern, and theHollister aspect. Early (ca. A.D. 1500 to 1700) and late (after ca. A.D. 1700) subphases have been distinguished. The Mosher phase succeeded the Johnson phase. The Mosher Site is SAC-56. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

MOSQUITO CREEK. A late Holocene phase in the upper Sacramento River valley, dated after ca. A.D. 100. Characteristic artifacts include Gunther projectile points. (Basgall and Hildebrandt 1989Sundahl 1992)

MOSTIN. A middle Holocene phase or aspect in the Clear Lake region of northwestern California, dated between ca. 6500 and 4300 B.C. The Mostin phase has been classified within the Berkeley pattern. Characteristics of the phase include Houx projectile points, pestles, and formalized burials. The phase is named for the Mostin Site (LAK-380/381) near Clear Lake and for avocational archaeologist Jerry Mostin, the site’s discoverer. (Hildebrandt 2007)

MOUSE. A middle to late Holocene facies in the Sacramento area. The Mouse facies has been classified within the Middle horizon. (Elsasser 1978)

NARROWS. An early Holocene horizon in northeastern California, dated between ca. 8000 and 5500 B.C. The Narrows horizon was followed by the Lairds Bay horizon. Luther S. Cressman defined the horizon in the Lower Klamath Lake area of southern Oregon. (Cressman 1942Raven 1984)

NEED. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento area, dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 700. The Need phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeley pattern, and theMorse aspect. It succeeded the Brazil phase and was followed by the Calhoun phase. The Need Site is SAC-151. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

NEVARES SPRING. An early Holocene complex in the Death Valley area of eastern California, dated between ca. 7000 and 5000 B.C. The Nevares Spring complex is essentially equivalent to the Death Valley I phase and corresponds to the Paleo-Indian stage and Lake Mohave period. It was followed by the Mesquite Flatcomplex, although possibly after a 2,000-year hiatus. Characteristic artifacts include Lake Mohave and Silver Lake projectile points. (Wallace 1977)

NEWARK. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 1300 and 1500. The Newark phase has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergent period, the Augustine pattern, and the Emeryville aspect. It succeeded the Bayshore phase and was followed by theFernandez phase. The Newark Site is ALA-328. (Beardsley 1954Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

NEWBERRY. A late Holocene period in the Mojave Desert and the Great Basin, dated between ca. 1500-1200 B.C. and A.D. 600-800. The Newberry period is essentially synonymous with the Gypsum period. It succeeded the Little Lake period and was followed by the Haiwee period. The period has sometimes been divided into early (ca. 1500 to 800 B.C.), middle (ca. 800 to 300 B.C.) and late (ca. 300 B.C. to A.D. 700) subperiods. The Newberry period has been identified with the Numic ethnolinguistic group. Newberry Cave is a site in the central Mojave Desert. (Bettinger and Taylor 1974Davis and Smith 1981Gilreath and Hildebrandt 1997Hall and Basgall 1994)

NORTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA ARCHAIC. A middle Holocene tradition, dated between 6000-5000 and 2000 B.C. The Menlo phase was a local manifestation of this tradition. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984;O’Connell 1975)

NORTHWESTERN CALIFORNIA. A late Holocene tradition, dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1500. Characteristic artifacts include Gunther projectile points. The unit was proposed by Joseph L. Chartkoff and Kerry Kona Chartkoff. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984)

NUECES. A late Holocene phase in the Sacramento delta area, dated between ca. A.D. 600 and 700. The Nueces phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeley pattern, and the Ellis Landing aspect. It succeeded the Ramon phase and was followed by the Maltby phase. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

OAK GROVE. A middle Holocene culture or people in the Santa Barbara area of southern California. The Oak Grove culture has been classified within the Archaic period, the Milling Stone horizon, and the Encinitastradition. The Glen Annie Site (SBA-142) near Goleta has sometimes been considered the type site for the culture, which was originally defined by David Banks Rogers. (Erlandson et al. 1988Owen 19641967D. Rogers 1929)

OAKVILLE. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. A.D. 1100 and 1300. The Oakville phase has been classified within the St. Helena aspect and the Augustine pattern. It succeeded the Bridge phase and was followed by the Davis phase. The type site is NAP-1. (Bennyhoff 1994a;Fredrickson 1984)

OLD CORDILLERAN. An early Holocene tradition, recognized primarily in Oregon and Washington but sometimes extended to include the Lake Mohave and San Dieguito complexes in California. The tradition was defined by B. R. Butler. (Butler 1961)

ORO GRANDE. A late Holocene complex on the upper Mojave River in southeastern California, dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1500. The Oro Grande complex has been identified with the Yuman culture orHakataya root. Characteristic elements of the complex include Cottonwood and Desert projectile points and an absence of pottery. The Oro Grande Site is located near Victorville. (Warren 1984)

OROVILLE. A late Holocene complex in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Oroville, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Oroville complex succeeded the Sweetwater complex. The Oroville complex has been identified with theMaiduan ethnolinguistic group. (Moratto 1984Ritter 1970)

ORWOOD. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Stockton area of central Calfiornia. The Orwood phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeley pattern, and the Meganosaspect. It succeeded the Woods phase and was followed by the Martin phase. The Orwood Site is CCO-141. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

PACHECO. A middle to late Holocene complex or phase in the San Joaquin Valley and adjacent coast ranges, dated between ca. 2600 B.C. and A.D. 300-950. Two phases were distinguished: Pacheco B and, after ca. 650 B.C., Pacheco A. The Pacheco complex succeeded the Positas complex and was followed by the Gonzagacomplex. Characteristic artifacts include larged stemmed and side-notched projectile points, mortars, pestles, millingstones, and several types of Olivella and Haliotis beads and ornaments. The complex was defined at the Grayson Site (MER-94). (Jones et al. 2007Olsen and Payen 1969)

PACIFIC. A late Holocene period defined for California as a whole, dated to after ca. 2000 B.C. The Pacific period has been split into early (ca. 2000 to 500 B.C.), middle (ca. 500 B.C. to A.D. 500), and late (after ca. A.D. 500) subdivisions. It was defined by Joseph L. Chartkoff and Kerry Kona Chartkoff. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984)

PALEO-COASTAL. An early Holocene tradition in coastal Califoria, dated between ca. 9000 and 6000 B.C. The Paleo-Coastal tradition has been considered a component of the Western Lithic co-tradition. It was proposed by Clark W. Brott. (Brott 1969Fitzgerald and Jones 1999Moratto 1984)

PALEO-INDIAN. A terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene stage, period, tradition, or culture recognized throughout North America and dated before ca. 8500-6000 B.C. It has also less commonly been designated as the Lithic stage. The Paleo-Indian stage succeeded the Pre-Projectile Point stage and was followed by theArchaic stage. Interpretive units that have been identified as Paleo-Indian include PostLake Mohave, andSan Dieguito. Characteristic artifacts include fluted (Clovis) projectile points and eccentric crescents. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984Fredrickson 1974Krieger 1964)

PALOMAR. A late Holocene tradition in southern Orange and northern San Diego counties and in the northern Peninsular Ranges and Coachella Valley, dated after ca. A.D. 700. The Palomar tradition locally replaced the Encinitas tradition. It was composed of a western San Luis Rey pattern and an eastern Peninsularpattern. It was identified with the local arrival of the Takic-speaking Luiseño and Cahuilla The tradition was defined by Mark Q. Sutton. (Sutton 2011)

PALO VERDE. A late Holocene branch on the lower Colorado River near Yuma, dated after ca. A.D. 700. The Palo Verde branch has been classified within the Laquish stem of the Hakataya root. (Schroeder 1979Warren 1984)

PANAMINT. A late Holocene complex in the Death Valley area of eastern California, dated after ca. A.D. 1000. The Panamint complex is essentially equivalent to the Death Valley IV period. It succeeded the Saratoga Springs complex. Characteristic artifacts include Cottonwood and Desert projectile points. (Wallace 1977)

PANOCHE. A late Holocene complex or phase identified in the San Joaquin Valley and adjacent coast ranges, dated after ca. A.D. 1500. The Panoche complex succeeded the Gonzaga complex at the Grayson Site (MER-S-94). Characteristic elements include flexed burials and cremations, small side-notched projectile points, mortars, pestles, and Haliotis and Olivella beads and ornaments. The Panoche complex has been identified with the Yokuts ethnolinguistic group. (Jones et al. 2007Olsen and Payen 1969)

PARK. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated after ca. A.D. 1100. The Park phase has been classified within the Late horizon and the Emergent period. It succeeded the Cardinal phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

PATAYAN. A late Holocene root or stem in southeastern California, dated to after ca. A.D. 700. The Patayan root is essentially synonymous with Yuman and Hakataya, although the Patayan stem has also been treated as one subdivision of the Hakataya root, specifically in the uplands of western Arizona. Branches from the Patayan root in California include Laquish and Cerbat, or Upland and Lowland Patayan. Characteristic elements include Lower Colorado ceramics, small projectile points, and cremation. The designation was proposed by Harold S. Colton, to avoid the linguistic connotations of Yuman. (Colton 19391945Harner 1958;Schroeder 1960Waters 1982)

PATRICK. A late Holocene phase in the Sacramento Valley, dated after ca. A.D. 1000. The Patrick phase succeeded the Llano Seco phase. The Patrick Site is BUT-1. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984)

PATTERSON. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area, dated between ca. 500 and 200 B.C. The Patterson phase has been classified within the Early or Middle horizon, the middle or upper Archaic, and the Berkeley pattern. The Patterson phase succeeded the Stege aspect and was followed by the Castrophase. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

PAUMA. A middle to late Holocene complex or pattern in the upper San Luis Rey River area of San Diego County. The Pauma complex succeeded the San Dieguito complex and was followed by the San Luis Reycomplex. It was defined by D. L. True, based on sites in Pauma Valley. Mark Sutton suggested the existence of two phases: Pauma I (ca. 5500-1000 B.C.) and Pauma II (ca. 1000 B.C.-A.D. 1000). Sutton and Gardner 2010;True 19581980Warren et al. 1961)

PENINSULAR. A late Holocene pattern in the Peninsular Ranges and Coachella Valley, and dated after ca. A.D. 700. It has been proposed as the eastern component of the Palomar tradition. The pattern has been divided into three phases, Peninsular I (ca. A.D. 700-1200), II (ca. 1200-1650), and II (after ca. A.D. 1650). The pattern has been identified with the Cahuilla ethnolinguistic group. The Peninsular complex was defined by Mark Q. Sutton. (Sutton 2011)

PHILIPPI. A late Holocene phase in the San Francisco Bay area, dated between ca. A.D. 400 and 500. The Philippi phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeley pattern, and the Meganos aspect. It succeeded the Sherwood phase and was followed by the Sobrante phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

PIKES POINT. A late Holocene phase in the southern Modoc Plateau of northeastern California, dated between ca. A.D. 1 and 1000. The Pikes Point phase succeeded the Aspen Grove phase. Characteristic artifacts include Rose Spring and Gunther projectile points. (Pippin et al. 1979Raven 1984)

PINTO. A middle to late Holocene complex or period in the Mojave Desert, dated between ca. 5000-3000 and 2000-700 B.C. The Pinto complex (or Pinto Basin complex) has been classified within the Desert tradition. It succeeded the Lake Mohave period and was followed by the Gypsum or Rose Spring period or the Amargosatradition. The Pinto complex has also been joined with the Gypsum complex in a single Pinto-Gypsum complex. Characteristic artifacts include Pinto projectile points. The complex was distinguished initially by Elizabeth Campbell in the Pinto Basin within Joshua Tree National Park. (Campbell and Campbell 1935Jenkins and Warren 1984Rogers 1939Schroth 1994Sutton 19881996Wallace 1962Warren and Crabtree 1986)

PLAYA. Two successive early Holocene phases in the deserts of southeastern California. Playa I and II have been identified with San Dieguito II and III respectively, or with the Lake Mohave complex. (Rogers 1939,1958Warren 1967Warren and True 1961)

PLEISTOCENE. The geologically defined epoch forming the early portion (“Ice Age”) of the Quaternary period, prior to the start of the Holocene epoch around 10,000 B.C.

POLLARD FLAT. A middle to late Holocene phase or aspect on the upper Sacramento River drainage, dated between 3300 and 700 B.C. The Pollard Flat phase has been classified within the Squaw Creek pattern. It was followed by the Vollmers phase. The Pollard Flat phase is characterized by Squaw Creek projectile points. (Basgall and Hildebrandt 1989Sundahl 1992)

PONCE. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area, dated between ca. A.D. 700 and 900. The Ponce phase has been classified within the Late horizon and the Augustine pattern. It succeeded theSobrante phase and was followed by the Crocker phase. The Ponce Site is SCL-1. (Beardsley 1954Bennyhoff 19861994bElsasser 1978Hoover 1971)

POSA. A late Holocene phase on Santa Cruz Island in southern California, dated after ca. 1000 B.C. The Posa phase succeeded the Frazers Point phase and was followed by the historic-period Smugglers Cove phase. (Hoover 1971)

POSITAS. A middle Holocene complex or phase in the San Joaquin Valley and adjacent coast ranges, dated between ca. 3300 and 2600 B.C. The Positas complex was followed by the Pacheco complex. Characteristic artifacts include mortars, pestles, millingstones, and spire-lopped Olivella beads. The complex was defined at the Grayson Site (MER-S-94). (Jones et al. 2007Olsen and Payen 1969).

POST. A late Pleistocene to early Holocene pattern in northwestern California, dated between ca. 11,500-10,000 and 8000-6000 B.C. The Post pattern has been classified within the Clovis culture, the Fluted Pointtradition, and the Paleo-Indian period or stage. It was followed by the Borax Lake pattern. Characteristic artifacts include fluted lanceolate (Clovis) projectile points and crescents. The Borax Lake Site (LAK-36) is considered the type site. The pattern, defined by David A. Fredrickson, takes its name from avocational archaeologist Chester Post. (Fredrickson 19731974Harrington 1948Hildebrandt 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

PRE-PROJECTILE POINT. A Pleistocene stage, horizon, period, or complex, recognized primarily in the Mojave Desert. The Pre-Projectile Point horizon has also been identified with the Early Man horizon. The Pre-Projectile Point stage was followed by the Paleo-Indian stage. Characteristic elements include flaked stone assemblages that lack projectile points. (Clements and Clements 1953Davis 19781982Glennan 1972;Simpson 1958Sutton 1996Wallace 1962)

PROVIDENCE. A late Holocene complex in the Providence Mountains area of the Mojave Desert, dated between ca. A.D. 800 and 1400-1700. The Providence complex has been classified within the Patayan or Yumanculture. The complex was defined by James T. Davis. (Davis 1962Donnan 1964)

RAMON. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento delta area, dated between ca. A.D. 400 and 600. The Ramon phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeleypattern, and the Ellis Landing aspect. It succeeded the Galindo phase and was followed by the Nueces phase. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983)

RANCHO SAN CARLOS. A late Holocene phase in the Monterey area of the central California coast, dated after ca. A.D. 1100, The Rancho San Carlos phase has been classified within the Late period. It succeeded theVierra phase. (Jones et al. 2007)

RAY. A middle and late Holocene phase in the Coso Mountains area of eastern California, dated between ca. 2500 and 300 B.C. The Ray phase was followed by the Chapman phase. Characteristic artifacts include Pintoand Elko projectile points. The Ray phase was defined by Timothy Shaw Hillebrand. (Hillebrand 1972;Panlaqui 1974Warren 1984)

RAYMOND. A late Holocene phase in the Chowchilla River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. A.D. 600 and 1500. The Raymond phase succeeded the Chowchilla phase and was followed by the Madera phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

REDBUD. The designation for two late Holocene phases, one in northwestern California and the other in the Sierra Nevada. As the final phase of the Berkeley pattern in northwestern California, the Redbud phase is dated between ca. A.D. 100 and 800; it succeeded the Houx phase. The Redbud phase on the Stanislaus River is dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 1250, succeeding the Sierra phase and followed by the Horseshoe Bendphase. (Hildebrandt 2007Hull 2007Moratto 1999White 2002)

REDDING. A late Holocene aspect in the upper Sacramento River drainage, dated after ca. A.D. 500-800. The Redding aspect is equivalent to the Shasta complex in that region and has been classified within theAugustine pattern. It has been interpreted as marking the arrival of Wintu speakers. (Bennyhoff 1994b;Sundahl 1992)

REDWOOD. A middle Holocene phase in the Big Sur area on the central California coast, dated between ca. 3500 and 600 B.C. The Redwood phase has been classified within the Early period and the Hunting culture. It succeeded the Interpretive phase and was followed by the Willow Creek phase. (Jones et al. 2007)

RHYOLITE. A middle Holocene tradition in the western Mojave Desert of southeastern California, dated between ca. 4000 and 2000 B.C. Characteristic artifacts include Pinto projectile points. The tradition was defined by William Stuart Glennan at the Sweetser Site (KER-302). (Glennan 1971aSutton 1988)

RINCON. Two late Holocene phases: one on the Santa Barbara coast of southern California, dated between ca. 2000 and 1500 B.C.; and the other at the Santa Rosa locality in northwestern California, dated between ca. A.D. 1000 and 1500. The Santa Barbara Rincón phase has been identified with the Early Canaliño phase. It succeeded the El Capitán and Extraños phases and was followed by the Middle Canalino phase. It was defined by William M. Harrison. The Santa Rosa Rincon phase has been classified within the Late period, theEmergent period, and the Augustine pattern. It succeeded the Laguna phase and was followed by the Gablesphase. Characteristic artifacts include serrated, corner-notched projectile points; hopper mortars; and Olivellasequin beads. (Harrison 1964Harrison and Harrison 1966Jones and Hayes 2007Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

RIVER GLEN. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. A.D. 100 and 700. The River Glen phase has been classified within the Houx aspect of the Berkeley pattern. It succeeded the Goddard phase and was followed by the Yount phase. (Fredrickson 1984)

ROSE SPRING. A late Holocene period in the deserts of eastern California, dated between ca. A.D. 400-500 and 1000-1300. The Rose Spring period is essentially equivalent to the Haiwee or Saratoga Springs period or to the Death Valley III phase. Characteristic artifacts include Rose Spring and Eastgate projectile points. (Sutton 1996)

ROSSMOOR. A late Holocene facies or phase in the San Francisco Bay-Mt. Diablo area. The Rossmoor facies has been classified within the Late horizon. It succeeded the Danville facies. (Breschini 1983)

RUTHERFORD. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. 1000 and 500 B.C. The Rutherford phase has been classified within the Houx aspect and the Berkeley pattern. It succeeded the Bale phase and was followed by the Kolb phase. Characteristic artifacts include Excelsiorprojectile points. The type site is NAP-32. (Bennyhoff 1994aFredrickson 1984)

SANDHILL. Two units: a late Holocene facies in the Sacramento area; and an aspect on the north Mendocino coast of northwestern California, dated between ca. A.D. 1300 and 1770. The Sandhill facies and aspect have been classified within the Late period. The Sandhill facies was followed by the Miller facies and has been identified with the Wuntuan ethnolinguistic group. The Sandhill Site is COL-3. The Sandhill aspect has been identified with the Coast Yuki. (Elsasser 1978)

SANDHILL BLUFF. A middle to late Holocene phase or aspect in the Santa Cruz-Santa Clara portion of California’s central coast, dated between ca. 3500 and 1700-500 B.C.. The Sandhill Bluff phase has been classified within the Early period and the Hunting culture. It succeeded the Metcalf phase and was followed locally by the Año Nuevo phase or Early Bay complex. (Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

SAN DIEGUITO. An early Holocene and possibly also late Pleistocene archaeological complex, pattern, culture, industry, tradition, period, or people, recognized primarily in coastal and desert southern California and dated between ca. 10,000-9000 and 6000-5000 B.C. The designation has sometimes been extended more widely through western North America, including the Mojave Desert (Lake Mohave complex), western Arizona, northern Baja California, southern San Joaquin Valley, and northwestern California. It has been classified within the Western Pluvial Lakes tradition and either the Paleo-Indian or the Archaic stage. Three successive phases are sometimes distinguished as San Dieguito I (or Malpais), II (or Playa I), and III (or Playa II). San Dieguito was followed by the La Jolla complex, Pauma complex, or Encinitas tradition in coastal southern California. Characteristic artifacts include Great Basin projectile points. The complex was originally defined by Malcolm J. Rogers and referred to sites centered on the San Dieguito River in western San Diego County, where it was initially termed the Scraper-Maker culture. The C. W. Harris Site (SDI-149) in Rancho Santa Fe has sometimes been considered the San Dieguito type site. (Fredrickson and Grossman 1977;Gallegos 1987Gross et al. 2006M. Rogers 192919391966Warren 19661967Warren and True 1961)

SAN JOAQUIN. A middle to late Holocene phase in the Kerckhoff Reservoir area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 4000 and 1200 B.C. The San Joaquin phase succeeded the Trans-Sierra phase and was followed by the Kerckhoff phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

SAN LUIS REY. A late Holocene complex or pattern in northern San Diego, Orange, and Riverside counties, and dated after ca. A.D. 500-1200. It has been proposed as the western component of the Palomar tradition. The complex or pattern has been divided into two phases, San Luis Rey I and II (before and after ca. A.D. 1450 respectively), primarily on the basis of the presence of pottery in the latter phase. Characteristic artifacts include small projectile points (particularly Cottonwood rather than Desert side-notched forms) and Tizonbrown ceramics. The complex has been identified with the Luiseño ethnolinguistic group. The San Luis Rey complex was defined by Clement W. Meighan on the middle San Luis Rey River. (Meighan 1954Robbins-Wade 1988Sutton 2011True 196619701986True et al. 1974)

SANTA THERESA. A middle Holocene complex in the Santa Clara area of coastal central California, dated to ca. 4400 B.C. The Santa Theresa complex has been identified with the Esselen ethnolinguistic group. It was distinguished by Robert Cartier at sites SCL-64 and SCL-106 in the Santa Theresa Hills. (Moratto 1984)

SARATOGA CREEK. A middle Holocene phase in the Santa Clara Valley. The Saratoga Creek phase has been classified within the Milling Stone horizon. It was distinguished at site SCL-65. (Fitzgerald 1993)

SARATOGA SPRINGS. A late Holocene complex or period in the Mojave Desert, dated between ca. A.D. 1-500 and 1000-1200. The Saratoga Springs period is essentially equivalent to the Haiwee or Rose Spring period or the Death Valley III phase. It succeeded the Newberry period or Mesquite Flat complex and was followed by the Marana period or Panamint complex. Characteristic artifacts include Rose Spring and Eastgate projectile points. The complex has been identified with the Uto-Aztecan ethnolinguistic group. The Saratoga Springs Site is in Death Valley. (Wallace 1977Wallace and Taylor 1959Warren and Crabtree 1986)

SAUNDERS. A middle to late Holocene phase in the Monterey area of the central California coast, dated between ca. 3500 and 1000 B.C. The Saunders phase is associated with the Hunting culture and the Earlyperiod. It was followed locally by the Vierra phase. (Jones et al. 2007)

SAWTOOTH. An late Holocene phase in the Kern Plateau area of the southern Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. A.D. 600 and 1300. The Sawtooth phase succeeded the Canebrake phase and was followed by theChimney phase. Characteristic artifacts include Rose Spring and Eastgate projectile points. The Sawtooth phase may represent the initial appearance of Numic speakers in the region. (Garfinkel 2007)

SAYLES. A late Holocene complex in the Cajon Pass area of southern California, dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 1000. The complex has also been identified as the Greven Knoll III phase of the Del Rey tradition. The complex was defined by Makoto Kowta; the Sayles Site is SBR-421. (Kowta 1969Sutton and Gardner 2010)

SCRAPER-MAKER. An early Holocene culture in the San Diego area. The designation has been replaced by the San Dieguito complex. The culture was defined by Malcolm J. Rogers. (M. Rogers 1929)

SHASTA. A late Holocene complex or aspect in northern California, including the Eel River and the upper Sacramento River drainages, dated after ca. A.D. 500-800. The complex has been classified within theAugustine pattern. An alternative designation for the Shasta complex on the upper Sacramento River drainage is the Redding aspect. Characteristic artifacts include Gunther and Desert projectile points. The Shasta complex has been identified with the Wintuan ethnolinguistic group. It was defined by Clement W. Meighan, based on studies in the Shasta Dam area. (Farber 1985Meighan 1955Moratto 1984Sundahl 19821992)

SHELL MIDDEN. An early, middle, and late Holocene people in the San Diego area. The designation has been replaced by alternative terms, such as the La Jolla culture, Encinitas tradition, Milling Stone horizon, andArchaic period. The unit was defined by Malcolm J. Rogers. (M. Rogers 1929)

SHERWOOD. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area, dated between ca. A.D. 200 and 400. The Sherwood phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, theBerkeley pattern, and the Ellis Landing aspect. The Sherwood phase succeeded the Alvarado phase and was followed by the Sobrante phase or the Philippi phase. (Bennyhoff 19861994bElsasser 1978)

SHOSHONEAN. A late Holocene complex, period, or tradition in southern California, dated after ca. A.D. 1200. In the Mojave Desert, the Shoshonean period is essentially equivalent to the Marana period. In coastal southern California, the tradition is essentially equivalent to the San Luis Rey and Irvine complexes. The Shoshonean unit succeeded the Haiwee or Saratoga Springs period in the Mojave Desert and the La Jollaculture or Encinitas tradition in coastal southern California. Characteristic artifacts include Desert andCottonwood projectile points. The designation refers to the Shoshonean or northern Uto-Aztecanethnolinguistic group. (Rogers 1939Wallace 1962Warren 1968Warren and Crabtree 1986)

SIERRA. A late Holocene phase in the Stanislaus River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 500. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

SISKIYOU. A late Holocene pattern in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon, dated after ca. A.D. 300. (Connolly 19861988)

SKAGGS. A middle to late Holocene period or phase at Warm Springs in the Russian River drainage of northwestern California, dated between ca. 3000 and 500 B.C. The Skaggs phase has been classified within the middle Archaic period and the Mendocino pattern. It was followed by the Dry Creek phase or period. Characteristic artifacts include Willits and Mendocino projectile points. The Skaggs phase has been identified with the Yukian ethnolinguistic group. (Basgall 19822007Hildebrandt 2007Jones and Hayes 2007)

SLATER. A late Holocene phase in the Sacramento delta area, dated between ca. 200 B.C. and A.D. 200. The Slater phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeley pattern, and the Ellis Landing aspect. It succeeded the Concord phase and was followed by the Galindo phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

SLICK ROCK. A late Holocene phase on the Kaweah River area of the southern Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. A.D. 1300. The Slick Rock phase succeeded the Greasy Creek phase. It has been identified with the Monoethnolinguistic group. Slick Rock Village is site TUL-10. (Fenenga 1952Moratto 1984)

SMITH. A late Holocene period in the Warm Springs locality of northwestern California, dated after ca. A.D. 1100-1500. The Smith period has been classified within the Clear Lake aspect and the Late period. It succeeded the Dry Creek period. Characteristic artifacts include Rattlesnake projectile points. (Basgall 19822007Jones and Hayes 2007)

SOBRANTE. A late Holocene phase or facies in the San Francisco Bay area, dated between ca. A.D. 500 and 700. The Sobrante phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeleypattern, and the Ellis Landing aspect. It succeeded the Sherwood phase or the Philippi phase and was followed by the Ponce phase. (Bennyhoff 1986Elsasser 1978)

SPOONER. A middle Holocene phase or complex in the Tahoe/Truckee area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 6000-5000 and 3000-2000 B.C. The Spooner phase succeeded the Tahoe Reach phase and was followed by the Martis phase. Characteristic artifacts include contracting-stem projectile points of the Pintoand Humboldt series. The complex has been identified with the Hokan ethnolinguistic group. (Hull 2007;Moratto 19841999)

SPRING LAKE. An early to middle Holocene phase or aspect at the Santa Rosa locality in northwestern California, dated between ca. 6500-6000 and 3500-2500 B.C. The Spring Lake phase has been classified within the early Archaic period and the Mendocino pattern. It was followed by the Black Hill phase. Characteristic artifacts include large, stemmed projectile points; milling slabs; and handstones. (Jones and Hayes 2007;Jones et al. 2007Milliken et al. 2007)

SQUAW CREEK. A middle to late Holocene pattern and an aspect in the northern Sacramento River drainage, dated between ca. 3000 and 1000 B.C. The Squaw Creek pattern encompassed Pollard Flat and Squaw Creek aspects. The Squaw Creek pattern succeeded the Borax Lake pattern and was followed by the Whiskeytownpattern. Characteristic artifacts include Squaw Creek contracting stem and leaf-shaped projectile points. The Squaw Creek Site is SHA-475. (Sundahl 1992)

STANISLAUS. A middle Holocene phase in the Stanislaus River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 4700 and 4200 B.C.. It succeeded the late Clarks Flat phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

STEGE. A middle to late Holocene aspect in the San Francisco Bay area, dated between ca. 5000-3000 B.C. and 1500-1000 B.C. The Stege aspect has been classified within the Early period and the Berkeley pattern. It was followed by the Patterson facies. The Stege aspect has been identified with the Utian ethnolinguistic group. The Stege Site is CCO-300. (Beardsley 1954Bennyhoff 1986Breschini 1983)

ST. HELENA. A late Holocene aspect in northwestern California, dated after ca. A.D. 1000. It has been classified within the Late period, the Emergent period, and the Augustine pattern. In the Napa area, a sequence of phases of the St. Helena aspect has been distinguished, including YountBridgeOakvilleDavis, and Lyman. The aspect has been identified with the Wappo ethnolinguistic group. (Milliken et al. 2007)

STOCKTON. A late Holocene aspect in the Stockton area of central California. The Stockton aspect has been classified within the Late period, the Emergent period, and the Augustine pattern. The aspect has been identified with the northern Yokuts ethnolinguistic group. (Bennyhoff and Fredrickson 1994)

STONE VALLEY. A middle to late Holocene aspect in the San Francisco Bay-Mt. Diablo, dated between ca. 5000-3000 B.C. and 1500-1000 B.C. The Stone Valey aspect has been classified within the Early period and theBerkeley pattern. It was followed by the Concord facies. (Breschini 1983)

STRAWBERRY. A middle to late Holocene phase in the Dinkey Creek area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 6000 and 1200 B.C. It was followed by the Exchequer phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

SUR. A middle to late Holocene pattern in the Monterey Bay area of central California, dated between ca. 2500 and 500 B.C. The Sur pattern was followed by the Monterey pattern. It has been identified with the Esselenethnolinguistic group. Gary S. Breschini and Trudy Haversat described the pattern. (Breschini 1983Jones and Hylkema 1988)

SWEETWATER. A late Holocene complex in the Sierra Nevada foothills near Oroville, dated between ca. A.D. 800 and 1500. The Sweetwater complex succeeded the Bidwell complex and was followed by the Orovillecomplex. Characteristic artifacts include EastgateRose Spring, and Gunther projectile points. The Sweetwater complex has been identified with the Maiduan ethnolinguistic group. (Moratto 1984Ritter 1970)

TAHOE REACH. An early Holocene phase in the Tahoe/Truckee area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 8000 and 6000 B.C. It succeeded the Washoe Lake phase and was followed by the Spooner phase. Characteristic artifacts include Parman projectile points. (Hull 2007Moratto 19841999)

TAMARACK. A late Holocene phase or complex in the Yosemite area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. A.D. 500-1000 and 1200-1250. It succeeded the Crane Flat phase and was followed by the Mariposa phase. The Tamarack complex was identified by James A. Bennyhoff. (Bennyhoff 1956Hull 2007Moratto 1999;Rondeau 1999)

TEHAMA. A late Holocene pattern in the upper Sacramento River valley, dated after ca. A.D. 200-500. The Tehama pattern succeeded the Whiskeytown pattern. The Dye Creek and Mill Creek complexes have been interpreted as aspects of the Tehama pattern. Characteristic artifacts include Gunther projectile points as well as small side-notched and corner-notched points. The pattern has been identified with Hokan or more specifically the Yana ethnolinguistic group. (Farber 1985Sundahl 1992)

TEXAS CHARLEY. A middle Holocene phase in the Stanislaus River area of the Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. 3500 B.C. The Texas Charley phase was followed by the Calaveras phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

TEXAS STREET. A Pleistocene industry in San Diego. The identity of the Texas Street lithic materials as artifacts has been disputed. The Texas Street Site was identified by George F. Carter. (Carter 19571980;Moratto 1984)

THOMES CREEK. A middle to late Holocene aspect in the North Coast ranges of northwestern California, dated between ca. 5000 and 500 B.C. The Thomes Creek aspect has been classified within the Borax Lakepattern and the lower and middle Archaic periods. (Fredrickson 1974)

TOPANGA. An early to middle Holocene complex or culture in the Santa Monica Mountains of coastal southern California, dated between ca. 6500 B.C. and A.D. 1. The Topanga complex has been classified within the Milling Stone horizon, the Encinitas tradition, or, less commonly, the Paleo-Indian stage. Three phases have been distinguished: Topanga I (ca. 6500-3000 B.C.), Topanga II (ca. 3000 to 1000 B.C.), and Topanga III (ca. 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1). The type site is the Tank Site (LAN-1) in Topanga Canyon. (Johnson 1966Kowta 1986Moratto 1984Sutton and Gardner 2010Treganza and Bierman 1958Treganza and Malamud 1950)

TRANS-SIERRA. An early to middle Holocene phase in the Kerckhoff Reservoir area of the Sierra Nevada, dated between ca. 7000 and 4000 B.C. The Trans-Sierra phase was followed by the San Joaquin phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

TULE LAKE. A late Holocene phase in the Tule Lake area of northeastern California. The Tule Lake phase has been classified within the Modoc horizon. It has been identified with the Modoc ethnolinguistic group. (Raven 1984Squier 1956)

TULE MEADOW. A late Holocene phase in the Helms Project area of the Sierra Nevada, dated after ca. A.D. 1250. The Tule Meadow phase succeeded the Deer Creek phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

VEALE. A late Holocene phase or facies in the Sacramento delta area. The Veale phase has been classified within the Late horizon, the Emergent period, the Augustine pattern, and the Hollister aspect. It succeeded theMaltby phase and was followed by the Hotchkiss phase. (Bennyhoff 1994bBreschini 1983Elsasser 1978)

VIERRA. A late Holocene phase in the Monterey area of the central California coast, dated between ca. 1000 B.C. and A.D. 1100. The Vierra phase has been classified within the Early and Middle periods and the Huntingculture. Locally it succeeded the Saunders phase and was followed by the Rancho San Carlos phase. (Jones et al. 2007)

VOLLMERS. A middle to late Holocene phase in the upper Sacramento River valley, dated between ca. 2500 B.C. and A.D. 300. The Vollmers phase partially overlapped and succeeded the Pollard Flat phase and was followed by the Mosquito Creek phase. Characteristic artifacts include Clikapudi projectile points. (Basgall and Hildebrandt 1989Sundahl 1992)

WASHOE LAKE. An early Holocene phase in the Tahoe/Truckee area of the Sierra Nevada, dated before ca. 8000 B.C. The Washoe Lake phase was followed by the Tahoe Reach phase. (Hull 2007Moratto 1999)

WESTERN LITHIC. An early Holocene co-tradition in western North America. The Western Lithic co-tradition has been classified within the Paleo-Indian stage. (Davis et al. 1969)

WESTERN PLUVIAL LAKES. An early Holocene tradition recognized in western North America, particularly in the Great Basin, and dated between ca. 9000 and 6000 B.C. The Lake Mohave tradition is considered a component of this tradition. The Western Pluvial Lakes tradition succeeded the Fluted Point tradition and was followed by the Archaic period. The tradition has sometimes been identified with the Hokan ethnolinguistic group. (Hester 1973)

WESTERN STEMMED. An early Holocene complex or tradition in the Mojave Desert and the Great Basin, dated between ca. 8000 and 5000 B.C. The Western Stemmed complex is essentially synonymous with theLake Mohave complex. (Sutton 1996Willig and Aikens 1988)

WHISKEYTOWN. A late Holocene pattern in the upper Sacramento River drainage, dated between ca. 1500-1000 B.C. and A.D. 300-1000. The Whiskeytown pattern succeeded the Squaw Creek pattern and was followed by Tehama pattern. (Basgall and Hildebrandt 1989Sundahl 1992)

WILLITS. A late Holocene pattern in the interior uplands of northwestern California, dated between ca. 3000-800 B.C. and A.D. 500. The Willits pattern is essentially equivalent to the Mendocino pattern. It has been identified with the Yukian ethnolinguistic group. (Bennyhoff 1994aHildebrandt 1981)

WILLOW CREEK. A late Holocene phase in the Big Sur area on the central California coast, dated between ca. 600 B.C. and A.D. 1000. The Willow Creek phase has been classified within the Middle period and theHunting culture. It succeeded the Redwood phase and was followed by the Highland phase. (Jones et al. 2007)

WINDMILLER. A middle to late Holocene tradition, pattern, facies, or culture in central California, particularly in the Sacramento delta, dated between 5000-2500 and 2000-500 B.C. The Windmiller tradition has been identified with the Early horizon or period and classified within the late Archaic period. Locally the Windmiller facies was followed by the MorseDeterdingBrazilNeed, or Orwood facies. The pattern has been identified with the Utian ethnolinguistic group. The type site is the Windmiller Mound Site (SAC-107). (Beardsley 1954;Bennyhoff and Fredrickson 1994Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984Fredrickson 1994Lillard et al. 1939Ragir 1972)

WOODEN VALLEY. A late Holocene complex in the Napa area of northwestern California. The complex was defined by Clement W. Meighan, based on a collection from site NAP-57 in Wooden Valley. (Meighan 1955)

WOODS. A late Holocene phase in the Stockton area of central California, dated between ca. A.D. 100 and 300. The Woods phase has been classified within the Middle horizon, the upper Archaic period, the Berkeleypattern, and the Meganos aspect. It succeeded the Castle phase and was followed by the Orwood phase. (Bennyhoff 1994b)

WURLITZER. A late Holocene phase in the Sacramento Valley of northern California, dated between ca. 2000 and 500 B.C. The Wurlitzer phase was followed by the Llano Seco phase. The Wurlitzer Site is located near Chico. (Chartkoff and Chartkoff 1984)

YOUNT. A late Holocene phase in the Napa area of northwestern California, dated between ca. A.D. 700 and 900. The Yount phase has been classified within the St. Helena aspect and the Augustine pattern. It was followed by the Bridge phase. (Fredrickson 1984)

YUMAN. A late Holocene culture, root, or tradition in the deserts and coasts of southern California, dated after ca. A.D. 500. The term is essentially synonymous with Hakataya and Patayan, and it encompasses theCuyamaca complex. Three phases have been distinguished: Yuman I (ca. A.D. 600-800 to 1050), Yuman II (ca. A.D. 1050 to 1450-1500) and Yuman III (after ca. A.D. 1450-1500). Characteristic artifacts include Desert andCottonwood projectile points. The culture was defined by Malcolm J. Rogers using a designation borrowed from Winifred and Harold S. Gladwin; it refers to the Yuman linguistic family. (Gladwin and Gladwin 1934;Rogers 1945)